Dimensions of Religiousness and Spirituality as Predictors of Well-Being in Advanced Chronic Heart Failure Patients
- 645 Downloads
We examined relationships between seven dimensions of religion/spirituality (RS) (forgiveness, daily spiritual experiences, belief in afterlife, religious identity, religious support, public practices, and positive RS coping) and three dimensions of well-being (physical, mental, and existential) in a sample of 111 patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 months later. Results showed that fairly high levels of RS were reported on all seven dimensions. Furthermore, RS dimensions were differentially related to well-being. No aspect of RS was related to physical well-being, and only a few aspects were related to mental well-being. Forgiveness was related to less subsequent depression, while belief in afterlife was related to poorer mental health. All aspects of RS were related to at least one aspect of existential well-being. In particularly, daily spiritual experiences were linked with higher existential well-being and predicted less subsequent spiritual strain. These results are consistent with the view that in advanced disease, RS may not affect physical well-being but may have potent influences on other aspects of well-being, particularly existential aspects.
KeywordsSpirituality Religiousness Heart failure Existential well-being Forgiveness
This study was funded by a research grant from the Fetzer Foundation to the first author.
- Abeles, R., Ellison, C. G., George, L. K., Idler, E. L., Krause, N., Levin, J. S., et al. (1999). Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality for use in health research. Kalamazoo, MI: John E. Fetzer Institute.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Heart failure fact sheet. Retrieved 24 July 2012, from www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fs_heart_failure.htm.
- Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 187–194). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fitchett, G., Murphy, P. E., Kim, J., Gibbons, J. L., Cameron, J. R., & Davis, J. A. (2004). Religious struggle: Prevalence, correlates and mental health risks in diabetic, congestive heart failure, and oncology patients. International Journal of Psychiatry and Medicine, 34, 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Flannelly, K. J., Ellison, C. G., Galek, K., & Koenig, H. G. (2008). Beliefs about life-after-death, psychiatric symptomology and theories of psychopathology. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 36, 94–103.Google Scholar
- Juenger, J., Schnellberg, D., Kraemer, S., Haunstetter, A., Zugck, C., Herzog, W., et al. (2002). Cardiovascular medicine. Health related quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure: Comparison with other chronic diseases and relation to functional variables. Heart, 87, 235–241.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Masters, K. M., & Hooker, S. (in press). Religion and cardiovascular health. In R. F. Paloutzian, & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, 2nd Edn. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- McCall, D. (1994). Congestive heart failure. In J. H. Stein, J. J. Hutton, & P. O. Kohler (Eds.), Internal medicine (4th ed., pp. 116–131). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I. (2007). Spiritually integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Park, C. L., Brooks, M. A., & Sussman, J. (2009). Dimensions of religion and spirituality in psychological adjustment in older adults living with congestive heart failure. In A. Ai & M. Ardelt (Eds.), The role of faith in the well-being of older adults: Linking theories with evidence in an interdisciplinary inquiry (pp. 112–134). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- Park, C. L., & Slattery, J. M. (in press). Religion and emotional health and well-being. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, 2nd Edn. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Rector, T. S., Kubo, S. H., & Cohn, J. N. (1987). Patients’ self-assessment of their congestive heart failure: II. Content, reliability and validity of a new measure-the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Heart Failure, 3, 198–209.Google Scholar
- Roger, V. L., Go, A. S., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Benjamin, E. J., Berry, J. D., Borden, W. B., et al. (2012). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2012 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 125(1), e2–e220.Google Scholar