Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 1013–1024 | Cite as

Menopausal Symptoms: Is Spirituality Associated with the Severity of Symptoms?

  • Filipa Pimenta
  • João Maroco
  • Catarina Ramos
  • Isabel Leal
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to explore whether spirituality was associated with menopausal symptoms. Menopausal symptoms, spirituality, health and menopausal status, and socio-demographic variables were assessed in a community sample of 710 peri- and postmenopausal women. A structural model was explored using structural equation modeling. The results evidence spirituality as a significant contributor regarding the severity of most menopausal symptoms. Among others, spirituality had a significant weight in depressive mood (β = −.414; p < .001), anxiety (β = −.308; p < .001), cognitive impairment (β = −.287; p < .001), aches/pain (β = −.148; p < .001), vasomotor (β = −.125; p = .005) and sexual symptoms (β = −.211; p < .001). Some socio-demographic variables, as well as perceived health, also predicted the menopausal symptoms’ severity. Therefore, spirituality can have a positive impact on the menopausal symptoms’ reporting.


Menopause symptoms Spirituality Structural equation modeling 



This research was funded by the Portuguese Fundação Portuguesa para a Ciência e Tecnologia (grant SFRH/BD/32359/2006). We thank Raquel Oliveira for proofreading the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filipa Pimenta
    • 1
  • João Maroco
    • 1
  • Catarina Ramos
    • 1
  • Isabel Leal
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology and Health Research UnitISPA – Instituto UniversitárioLisbonPortugal

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