Advertisement

Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 386–396 | Cite as

Religiousness as a Factor of Hesitation Against Doping Behavior in College-Age Athletes

  • Natasa Zenic
  • Marija Stipic
  • Damir SekulicEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Religiousness is rarely studied as protective factor against substance use and misuse in sport. Further, we have found no investigation where college-age athletes were sampled and studied accordingly. The aim of the present study was to identify gender-specific protective effects of the religiousness (measured by Santa Clara Questionnaire) and other social, educational, and sport variables as a potential factors of hesitation against doping behaviors in sport-science-students from Mostar, Bosnia, and Herzegovina (51 women and 111 men; age range, 18–26). The gender differences for the non-parametric variables were established by Kruskall–Wallis test, while for the parametric variables the t-test for independent samples was used. Multiple regression calculations revealed religiousness as the most significant predictor of the social, health, sport and legal factors of hesitation against doping behaviors in both genders. However, the differential influence of the social, educational, sport and religious factors in relation to negative consequences of the doping behaviors is found for men and women. Such differential influence must be emphasized in tailoring the anti-doping policy and interventions.

Keywords

Substance use Test construction Predictors Measurement Validity Factor analysis 

References

  1. Bahr, S. J., Maughan, S. L., Marcos, A. C., & Li, B. (1998). Family, religiosity, and the risk of adolescent drug use. Journal of Marriage and Family, 60, 979–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, T. L., Parks, G. S., Zimmerman, R. S., & Phillips, C. M. (2001). The role of religion in predicting adolescent alcohol use and problem. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 696–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Buckman, J. F., Yusko, D. A., White, H. R., & Fandina, R. J. (2009). Risk profile of male college athletes who use performance-enhancing substances. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 919–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Catlin, D. H., Fitch, K. D., & Ljungqvist, A. (2008). Medicine and science in the fight against doping in sport. Journal of Internal Medicine, 264, 99–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavar, M., Sekulic, D., & Culjak, Z. (2010). Complex interaction of religiousness with other factors in relation to substance use and misuse among female athletes. Journal of Religion and Health, (in press) [e-pub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  6. Cook, C. C. H., Goddard, D., & Westall, R. (1997). Knowledge and experience of drug use amongst church affiliated young people. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 46, 9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drumm, R. D., McBride, D. C., Allen, K., Baltzar, A., & McCoy, C. B. (2001). Protective effects of religion: Drug use, HIV risk, and violence. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 13, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gnadt, B. (2006). Religiousness, current substance use, and early risk indicators for substance abuse in nursing students. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 17, 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hu, F. B., Rimm, E., Smith-Warner, S. A., Feskanich, D., Stampfer, M. J., Ascherio, A. L., et al. (1999). Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food- frequency questionnaire. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 243–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kayser, B., Mauron, A., & Miah, A. (2007). Current anti-doping policy: A critical appraisal. BMC Medical Ethics, 8,art. no. 2.Google Scholar
  11. Kersey, R. D. (1996). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among California community college student-athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 31, 237–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Klein, H., Elifson, K. W., & Sterk, C. E. (2006). The relationship between religiosity and drug use among “at risk” women. Journal of Religion and Health, 45, 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kokkevi, A., Fotiou, A., Chileva, A., Nociar, A., & Miller, P. (2008). Daily exercise and anabolic steroids use in adolescents: A cross-national European study. Substance Use and Misuse, 43, 2053–2065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koster, F., Goudriaan, H., & van der Schans, C. (2009). Shame and punishment: An international comparative study on the effects of religious affiliation and religiosity on attitudes to offending. European Journal of Criminology, 6, 481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lai, S., Lai, H., Page, J. B., & McCoy, C. B. (2000). The association between cigarette smoking and drug abuse in the United States. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 19, 11–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maravelias, C., Dona, A., Stefanidou, M., & Spiliopoulou, C. (2005). Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes: A constant threat. Toxicology Letters, 158, 167–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martin, J. L. (2009). Social structures. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Menagi, F. S., Harrell, Z. A. T., & June, L. N. (2008). Religiousness and college student alcohol use: Examining the role of social support. Journal of Religion and Health, 47, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nagel, E., & Sgoutas-Emch, S. (2007). The relationship between spirituality, health beliefs, and health behaviors in college students. Journal of Religion and Health, 46, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pallesen, S., Jøsendal, O., Johnsen, B.-H., Larsen, S., & Molde, H. (2006). Anabolic steroid use in high school students. Substance Use and Misuse, 41, 1705–1717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pampel, F. C. (2000). Logistic regression: A primer (quantitative applications in the social sciences) (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Paul, D. (2008). A guide to the world anti-doping code: A fight for the spirit of sport (1st ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Peters, R. J., Jr., Adams, L. F., Barnes, J. B., Hines, L. A., Jones, D. E., Krebs, K. M. A., et al. (2005). Beliefs and social norms about ephedra onset and perceived addiction among college male and female athletes. Substance Use and Misuse, 40, 125–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petróczi, A. (2007). Attitudes and doping: A structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes’ attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour. Substance Abuse: Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2, art. no. 34.Google Scholar
  25. Pipe, A., & Ayotte, C. (2002). Nutritional supplements and doping. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 12, 245–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Plante, T. G., & Boccaccini, M. (1997). The Santa Clara strength of religious faith questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology, 45, 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rodek, J., Sekulic, D., & Pasalic, E. (2009). Can we consider religiousness as a protective factor against doping behavior in sport? Journal of Religion and Health, 48, 445–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sekulic, D., Kostic, R., Rodek, J., Damjanovic, V., & Ostojic, Z. (2009). Religiousness as a protective factor for substance use in dance sport. Journal of Religion and Health, 48, 269–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Storch, E. A., Roberti, J. W., Bravata, E. A., & Storch, J. B. (2004). Strenght of religious faith: A comparison of intercollegiate athletes and non-athletes. Pastoral Psychology, 52, 485–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Torabi, M. R., Bailey, W. J., & Majd-Jabbari, M. (1993). Cigarette smoking as a predictor of alcohol and other drug use by children and adolescents: evidence of the “gateway drug effect”. Journal of School Health, 63, 302–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. VonDras, D. D., Schmitt, R. R., & Marx, D. (2007). Associations between aspects of spiritual well-being, alcohol use, and related social-cognitions in female college students. Journal of Religion and Health, 46, 500–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zenic, N., Peric, M., Zubcevic, N. G., Ostojic, Z., & Ostojic, L. (2010). Comparative analysis of substance use in ballet, dance sport, and synchronized swimming: Results of a longitudinal study. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 25, 75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of KinesiologyUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mathematics and EducationUniversity of MostarMostarBosnia and Herzegovina
  3. 3.Clinical Hospital SplitSplitCroatia

Personalised recommendations