Proportion of US Congregations that have People Living with HIV
- 101 Downloads
Surveillance studies monitor the prevalence and incidence of HIV, and this information is used by policy makers to design prevention programs and facilitate care for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Although most of these studies monitor the presence of PLWHIV in the general population or specific communities, some assess the presence of PLWHIV in organizations. One type of organization that has not been examined, yet could potentially play a large role in caring for PLWHIV, is the religious congregation. In this study, we estimate the proportion of US religious congregations that have PLWHIV and examine whether congregations that are in contact with populations with high HIV prevalence and incidence rates are more likely to have PLWHIV using data from a nationally representative sample of congregations and the 2000 Census. Over 10,000 congregations have PLWHIV, and congregations containing, open to, or located in areas with populations with high HIV prevalence and incidence rates are more likely to have them. This study offers new insight into the presence of HIV in the United States and provides information about which congregations may be amenable to serving as sites of HIV programs.
KeywordsCongregations HIV/AIDS Organizations Religion Surveillance
The project was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation (#0452269) as well as grants from the Lilly Endowment, Inc. (2006-1675-000), the Kellogg Foundation (P0118042), and the Louisville Institute (2005105). These grants supported the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Data collection was handled by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, and the data were cleaned at Duke University, Durham, NC. The authors would like to thank Kim Blankenship, Brad Fulton, and Steven Foy for their helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.
- Bozzette, S. A., Berry, S. H., Duan, N., Frankel, M. R., Leibowitz, A. A., Lefkowitz, D., et al. (1998). The care of HIV-infected adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 339(26), 1897–1904.Google Scholar
- Buehler, J. W. (2008). Surveillance. In K. J. Rothman, S. Greenland, & T. L. Lash (Eds.), Modern epidemiology (3rd ed., pp. 459–480). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
- US Census Bureau (2002). Census 2000 Summary File 3—United States [Data file].Google Scholar
- Carlin, J. B., Galati, J. C., & Royston, P. (2008). A new framework for managing and analyzing multiply imputed data in Stata. Stata Journal, 8(1), 49–67.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). HIV prevalence estimates—United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57(39), 1073–1076.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2007, 19 Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/.
- Chaves, M. (2004). Congregations in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Chaves, M., & Anderson, S. L. (2009). National Congregations Study cumulative codebook for waves I and II (1998 and 2006–2007). Durham: Duke University, Sociology Department.Google Scholar
- Davis, J. A., Smith, T. W., & Marsden, P. V. (2007). General Social Surveys, 1972–2006: cumulative codebook. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.Google Scholar
- Frenk, S. M., Anderson, S. L., Chaves, M., & Martin, N. (forthcoming). Assessing the validity of key informant reports about congregants’ demographic characteristics. Sociology of Religion.Google Scholar
- Hernández, E. I., Burwell, R., & Smith, J. (2007). Answering the call: how Latino churches can respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies.Google Scholar
- Hicks, K. E., Allen, J. A., & Wright, E. M. (2005). Building holistic HIV/AIDS responses in African American urban faith communities: a qualitative, multiple case study analysis. Family & Community Health, 28(2), 184–205.Google Scholar
- Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured/Urban Institute. (2007). Health insurance coverage in the US, 2006. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://facts.kff.org/chart.aspx?ch=477. 2007.
- Kennedy, P. (2008). A guide to econometrics (6th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- King, G., & Zeng, L. (1999a). Logistic regression in rare events data. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Department of Government. Retrieved from http://GKing.Harvard.Edu.
- King, G., & Zeng, L. (1999b). Estimating absolute, relative, and attributable risks in case-control studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Department of Government. Retrieved from http://GKing.Harvard.Edu.
- Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Waterman, P. D., Soobader, M., Subramanian, S. V., & Carson, R. (2002). Geocoding and monitoring of US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter? The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156(5), 471–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marsden, P. V., & Rohrer, L. H. (2001). Organizational and informant differences in the reliability of survey reports on organization size and age. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association meetings. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
- McPherson, J. M., & Rotolo, T. (1995). Measuring the composition of voluntary groups—a multitrait-multimethod analysis. Social Forces, 73(3), 1097–1115.Google Scholar
- McRoberts, O. (2003). Streets of glory: church and community in a black urban neighborhood. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Royston, P. (2007). Multiple imputation of missing values: further update of ice, with an emphasis on interval censoring. Stata Journal, 7(4), 445–464.Google Scholar
- StataCorp. (2007). Stata Statistical Software: Release 10. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- Tomz, M., King, G., & Zeng, L. (1999). RELOGIT: rare events logistic regression, Version 1.1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Retrieved from http://gking.harvard.edu/.