Procrastination and Rational/Irrational Beliefs: A Moderated Mediation Model

  • Murat BalkisEmail author
  • Erdinç Duru


The present study focuses on the integrated effect of self-doubt, rational and irrational beliefs, and fear of failure on procrastination in a sample of Turkish undergraduate students (N = 293). The results confirm prior evidence indicating that self-doubt, fear of failure, and rational/irrational beliefs were important predictors of procrastination. The results show that (a) both self-doubt and irrational beliefs have direct and interactive effects on fear of failure, (b) fear of failure mediates the relationship between self-doubt and procrastination, (c) rational beliefs moderated the predictive effect of fear of failure on procrastination, and (d) the indirect effect of self-doubt on procrastination via fear of failure may vary depending on the level of rational and irrational beliefs. These findings suggest that future intervention attempts should focus on modifying irrational beliefs and enhancing rational beliefs to cope with procrastination.


Self-doubt Fear of failure Irrational and rational beliefs Procrastination Moderated mediation model 



This study supported by Pamukkale University Scientific Research Programs (BAP).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare no conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Faculty of EducationPamukkale UniversityKinikli-DenizliTurkey

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