Why is the Victimization of Young Latino Adults Higher in New Areas of Settlement?
- 182 Downloads
We used multilevel data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to identify factors that account for differences in risk of violent victimization among young Latino adults in new and traditional settlement areas.
Area-identified NCVS data (2008–2012) were linked with census tract data from the decennial census and American Community Survey to study individual and community contributions to the risk of violent victimization. We analyzed total violence and violence specific to offense types and victim-offender relationship. The analyses were performed adjusting for the complex survey design.
Young Latino adults in new settlement areas have higher victimization rates than their counterparts in traditional areas for total violence and for the majority of violence types studied. Holding constant individual and other contextual factors, Latino population density is a key neighborhood characteristic that explains the observed area differences in victimization, yielding evidence for the hypothesis that co-ethnic support in a community helps protect young Latino adults and contributes to differences in victimization across areas. Also there is evidence that the protective role of Latino population density is stronger for violence involving non-strangers than it is for violence involving strangers. Moreover, we find that the concentration of Latino immigrants, which indicates the neighborhood potential for immigrant revitalization, is another neighborhood factor that protects young Latino adults in both new and traditional settlement areas. However, there is some but limited evidence that the neighborhood-revitalizing role of immigration might be smaller in some contexts (such as some new areas outside central cities), possibly because those areas are heterogeneous in their ability to promote the integration of immigrants.
Our analysis of the NCVS shows the importance of neighborhood factors for the risk of violence among young Latino adults. It provides evidence consistent with co-ethnic support and immigrant revitalization theories. The findings also suggest that the effects of those neighborhood factors may be contingent upon violence type and the context in which they occur. These findings help us understand the difference in the safety of young Latino adults in new and traditional areas.
KeywordsViolence Victimization Latinos or Hispanics Immigration New settlement areas
This research was funded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice, Award No. 2012-R2-CX-0017. The opinions expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice.
- Bonacich E (1993) The other side of ethnic entrepreneurship: a dialogue with Waldinger, Aldrich, Ward, and associates. Int Migrat Rev 27:685–692Google Scholar
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015) Number of violent victimizations, 2008–2012. Table generated April 2015. NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool. www.bjs.gov
- Cochran WG (1977) Sampling techniques. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Durand J, Telles E, Flashman J (2006) The demographic foundations of the Latino population. In: Tienda M, Mitchell F (eds) Hispanics and the future of America. The National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Hindelang MJ, Gottfredson MR, Garofalo J (1978) Victims of personal crime: an empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Ballinger, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Kandel W, Cromartie J (2004) New patterns of Hispanic settlement in rural America. Economic Research Service, US Department Agriculture, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Kochhar R (2006) Latino labor report 2006: strong gains in employment. Pew Hispanic Center, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Langton L, Berzofsky M, Krebs C, Smiley-McDonald H (2012) Victimizations not reported to the police, 2006–2010 (NCJ 238536). Bureau of Justice Statistics, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Lauritsen JL, Owens JG, Planty M, Rand MR, Truman JL (2012) Methods for counting high-frequency repeat victimizations in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCJ-237308). Bureau of Justice Statistics, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Leach MA, Bean FD (2008) The structure and dynamics of Mexican migration to new destinations in the United States. In: Massey DS (ed) New faces in new places: the changing geography of American immigration. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Light I, Gold SJ (2000) Ethnic economies. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Lobao LM, Hooks G (2007) Advancing the sociology of spatial inequality: spaces, places, and the subnational scale. In: Lobao LM, Hooks G, Tickamyer AR (eds) The sociology of spatial inequality. State University of New York Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Lynch JP, Addington LA (2007) Understanding crime statistics: Revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and the UCR. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Martinez R (2002) Latino homicide: immigration, violence and community. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Massey DS (2008) New faces in new places: the changing geography of American immigration. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Massey DS, Capoferro C (2008) The geographic diversification of American immigration. In: Massey DS (ed) New faces in new places: the changing geography of American immigration. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Moore J, Vigil JD (1993) Barrios in transition. In: Moore J, Pinderhughes R (eds) In the Barrios: Latinos and the underclass debate. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Parrado EA, Kandel W (2008) New Hispanic migrant destinations: a tale of two industries. In: Massey DS (ed) New faces in new places: the changing geography of American immigration. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Portes A, Manning RD (1986) The immigrant enclave: theory and empirical examples. In: Olzak S, Nagel J (eds) Competitive ethnic relations. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Rennison CM (2002) Hispanic victims of violent crime, 1993–2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Ruggles S, Alexander JT, Genadek K, Goeken R, Schroeder MB, Sobek M (2010) Integrated public use microdata series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minnesota Population Center, Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
- Sampson RJ, Bean L (2006) Cultural mechanisms and killing fields: a revised theory of community-level racial inequality. In: Peterson R, Krivo L, Hagan J (eds) The many colors of crime: Inequalities of race, ethnicity and crime in America. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Sampson RJ, Laub JH (1993) Crime in the making: pathways and turning points through life. Harvard University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Sampson RJ, Lauritsen JL (1994) Violent victimization and offending: Individual-, situational-, and community-level risk factors. In: Reiss AJ, Roth J (eds) Understanding and preventing violence: social influences. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Sorenson SB, Telles CA (1991) Self-reports of spousal violence in a Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white population. Violence Vict 6:3–15Google Scholar
- Suro R, Singer A (2002) Latino growth in metropolitan America: changing patterns, new locations. Brookings Institution and Pew Hispanic Center, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Suttles GD (1968) The social order of the slum. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Tafoya S (2007) Shades of belonging: Latinos and racial identity. In: Rothenberg PS (ed) Race, class, and gender in the United States. Worth Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Tienda M, Mitchell F (2006) Hispanics and the future of America. National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- US Department of Labor (2012) The Latino labor force at a glance. https://www.dol.gov/_sec/media/reports/hispaniclaborforce/
- Velez MB (2006) Toward an understanding of the lower rates of homicide in Latino versus Black neighborhoods: a look at Chicago. In: Peterson RD, Krivo LJ, Hagan J (eds) Many colors of crime: inequalities of race, ethnicity, and crime in America. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Velez MB, Lyons CJ (2012) Situating the immigration and neighborhood crime relationship across multiple cities. In: Kubrin CE, Zatz MS, Martinez R (eds) Punishing immigrants: policy, politics, and injustice. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Velez-Ibanez C (1993) U.S. Mexicans in the borderlands: being poor without the underclass. In: Moore J, Pinderhughes R (eds) In the Barrios: Latinos and the underclass debate. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Waldinger R (1993) The two sides of ethnic entrepreneurship: reply to Bonacich. Int Migrat Rev 27:692–701Google Scholar
- Waldinger R, Lichter MI (2003) How the other half works: Immigration and the social organization of labor. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
- Xie M, Planty M (2014) Violent victimization in new and established Hispanic areas, 2007–2010 (NCJ-246311). Bureau of Justice Statistics, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Zhou M (2007) Revisiting ethnic entrepreneurship: convergencies, controversies, and conceptual advancements. In: Portes A, DeWind J (eds) Rethinking migration: new theoretical and empirical perspectives. Berghahn Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Zúñiga V, Hernandez-Leon R (2005) New destinations: Mexican immigration in the United States. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar