Advertisement

Predictive Language Processing in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study

  • Peng Zhou
  • Likan Zhan
  • Huimin Ma
Article

Abstract

Sentence comprehension relies on the abilities to rapidly integrate different types of linguistic and non-linguistic information. The present study investigated whether Mandarin-speaking preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to use verb information predictively to anticipate the upcoming linguistic input during real-time sentence comprehension. 26 five-year-olds with ASD, 25 typically developing (TD) five-year-olds and 24 TD four-year-olds were tested using the visual world eye-tracking paradigm. The results showed that the 5-year-olds with ASD, like their TD peers, exhibited verb-based anticipatory eye movements during real-time sentence comprehension. No difference was observed between the ASD and TD groups in the time course of their eye gaze patterns, indicating that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with ASD are able to use verb information as effectively and rapidly as TD peers to predict the upcoming linguistic input.

Keywords

Predictive language processing Anticipatory eye movements Visual world paradigm Autism spectrum disorder Child sentence comprehension 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China [16BYY076] to Peng Zhou. The authors would like to thank the children, the parents and the teachers at the Enqi Autism Platform and at the Taolifangyuan Kindergarten, Beijing, China, for their assistance and support in running the study. The authors are also grateful to the reviewer for the thoughtful comments and suggestions.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Altmann, G., & Kamide, Y. (1999). Incremental interpretation at verbs: Restricting the domain of subsequent reference. Cognition, 73, 247–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00059-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann, G., & Kamide, Y. (2007). The real-time mediation of visual attention by language and world knowledge: Linking anticipatory (and other) eye movements to linguistic processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 502–518.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreu, L., Sanz-Torrent, M., & Trueswell, J. C. (2013). Anticipatory sentence processing in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from eye movements during listening. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 5–44.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J., & Bates, D. M. (2008). Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 390–412.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barr, D. J. (2008). Analyzing ‘visual world’ eyetracking data using multilevel logistic regression. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 457–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J. (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 255–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bates, D. M., Kliegl, R., Vasishth, S., & Baayen, R. H. (2015). Parsimonious Mixed Models. Retrieved from arXiv: 1506.04967 (stat.ME).Google Scholar
  10. Bates, D. M., Maechler, M., & Bolker, B. (2013). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. Retrieved from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/index.html.
  11. Bavin, E. L., Kidd, E., Prendergast, L. A., & Baker, E. K. (2016a). Young children with ASD use lexical and referential information during on-line sentence processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 171.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00171.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bavin, E. L., Prendergast, L. A., Kidd, E., Baker, E., & Dissanayake, C. (2016b). Online processing of sentences containing noun modification in young children with high-functioning autism. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 51, 137–147.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boucher, J. (2012). Research review: Structural language in autism spectrum disorder–characteristics and causes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 219–233.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02508.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brock, J., Norbury, C. F., Einav, S., & Nation, K. (2008). Do individuals with autism process words in context? Evidence from language-mediated eye-movements. Cognition, 108, 896–904.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.06.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chita-Tegmark, M., Arunachalam, S., Nelson, C. A., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2015). Eye-tracking measurements of language processing: Developmental differences in children at high risk for ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3327–3338.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2495-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Choi, Y., & Trueswell, J. C. (2010). Children’s (in)ability to recover from garden paths in a verb-final language: Evidence for developing control in sentence processing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 41–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.01.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, R. M. (1974). The control of eye fixation by the meaning of spoken language: A new methodology for the real-time investigation of speech perception, memory, and language processing. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 84–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(74)90005-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DiCriscio, A. S., Miller, S. J., Hanna, E. K., Kovac, M., Turner-Brown, L., Sasson, N. J., et al. (2016). Brief report: Cognitive control of social and nonsocial visual attention in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2797–2805.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2804-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Diehl, J. J., Friedberg, C., Paul, R., & Snedeker, J. (2015). The use of prosody during syntactic processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 867–884.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000741.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Eigsti, I. M., Bennetto, L., & Dadlani, M. B. (2007). Beyond pragmatics: Morphosyntactic development in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1007–1023.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0239-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Eigsti, I. M., de Marchena, A. B., Schuh, J. M., & Kelley, E. (2011). Language acquisition in autism spectrum disorders: A developmental review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 681–691.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Falck-Ytter, T., Bölte, S., & Gredebäck, G. (2013). Eye tracking in early autism research. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5, 28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1866-1955-5-28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Fernald, A., Zangl, R., Portillo, A. L., & Marchman, V. A. (2008). Looking while listening: Using eye movements to monitor spoken language comprehension by infants and young children. In I. A. Sekerina, E. M. Fernández, & H. Clahsen (Eds.), Developmental Psycholinguistics: On-line Methods in Children’s Language Processing (pp. 97–135). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007). Gaze cueing of attention: Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 694.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.4.694.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Garraffa, M., Coco, M. I., & Branigan, H. P. (2018). Impaired implicit learning of syntactic structure in children with developmental language disorder: Evidence from syntactic priming. Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, 3, 2396941518779939.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2396941518779939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gliga, T., Bedford, R., Charman, T., Johnson, M. H., & Team, B. A. S. I. S. (2015). Enhanced visual search in infancy predicts emerging autism symptoms. Current Biology, 25, 1727–1730.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.05.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Guillon, Q., Hadjikhani, N., Baduel, S., & Rogé, B. (2014). Visual social attention in autism spectrum disorder: Insights from eye tracking studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 42, 279–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Happe, F., Booth, R., Charlton, R., & Hughes, C. (2006). Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain and Cognition, 61, 25–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Howlin, P. (2003). Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: Implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 3–13.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022270118899.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Huang, Y.-T., Zheng, X., Meng, X., & Snedeker, J. (2013). Children’s assignment of grammatical roles in the online processing of Mandarin passive sentences. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 589–606.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2013.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hudry, K., Leadbitter, K., Temple, K., Slonims, V., McConachie, H., Aldred, C., et al. (2010). Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45, 681–690.  https://doi.org/10.3109/13682820903461493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jones, W., & Klin, A. (2013). Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2–6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism. Nature, 504, 427–431.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12715.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaldy, Z., Giserman, I., Carter, A. S., & Blaser, E. (2016). The mechanisms underlying the ASD advantage in visual search. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 1513–1527.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1957-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaldy, Z., Kraper, C., Carter, A. S., & Blaser, E. (2011). Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder are more successful at visual search than typically developing toddlers. Developmental science, 14, 980–988.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01053.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Kamide, Y., Altmann, G., & Haywood, S. (2003a). The time course of prediction in incremental sentence processing: Evidence from anticipatory eye-movements. Journal of Memory and Language, 49, 133–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00023-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kamide, Y., Scheepers, C., & Altmann, G. (2003b). Integration of syntactic and semantic information in predictive processing: A cross-linguistic study in German and English. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 32, 37–55.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021933015362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kasari, C., Brady, N., Lord, C., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2013). Assessing the minimally verbal school-aged child with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 6, 479–493.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1334.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Kjelgaard, M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An investigation of language profiles in autism: Implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitive Processes, 16, 287–308.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960042000058.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Koning, C., & Magill-Evans, J. (2001). Social and language skills in adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 5, 23–36.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361301005001003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kover, S. T., Haebig, E., Oakes, A., McDuffie, A., Hagerman, R. J., & Abbeduto, L. (2014). Sentence comprehension in boys with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 23, 385–394.  https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_AJSLP-13-0073.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Lew-Williams, C., & Fernald, A. (2007). Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition. Psychological Science, 33, 193–198.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01871.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li, Y., & Zhu, J. (2014). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ - IV (CN) (WPPSI-IV (CN)). Zhuhai: Zhuhai King-may Psychological Measurement Technology Development Co., Ltd.Google Scholar
  43. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  44. Luyster, R. J., Kadlec, M. B., Carter, A., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2008). Language assessment and development in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1426–1438.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0510-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Naigles, L. R., & Chin, I. (2015). Language development in children with autism. In E. Bavin & L. R. Naigles (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of child language (2nd ed., pp. 637–658). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Naigles, L., & Fein, D. (2017). Looking through their eyes: Tracking early language comprehension in ASD. In L. Naigles (Ed.), Innovative investigations of language in Autism (pp. 49–70). NY: APA Books/Walter deGruyter.Google Scholar
  47. Naigles, L. R., Kelty, E., Jaffery, R., & Fein, D. (2011). Abstractness and continuity in the syntactic development of young children with autism. Autism Research, 4, 422–437.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.223.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Naigles, L. R., & Tek, S. (2017). ‘Form is easy, meaning is hard’ revisited: (re) characterizing the strengths and weaknesses of language in children with autism spectrum disorder. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 8, e1438.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Naigles, L. R., & Tovar, A. T. (2012). Portable intermodal preferential looking (IPL): Investigating language comprehension in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 70, e4331.  https://doi.org/10.3791/4331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nation, K., Marshall, C., & Altmann, G. (2003). Investigating individual differences in children’s real-time sentence comprehension using language-mediated eye movements. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 86, 314–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2003.09.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Norbury, C. F. (2017). Eye-tracking as a window on language processing in autism spectrum disorder. In L. Naigles (Ed.), Innovative investigations of language in Autism (pp. 13–33). New York, NY: APA Books.Google Scholar
  52. Omaki, A. (2010). Commitment and flexibility in the developing parser. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  53. Perovic, A., Modyanova, N., & Wexler, K. (2013). Comprehension of reflexive and personal pronouns in children with autism: A syntactic or pragmatic deficit? Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 813–835.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Plesa-Skwerer, D., Jordan, S. E., Brukilacchio, B. H., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2016). Comparing methods for assessing receptive language skills in minimally verbal children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism, 20, 591–604.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361315600146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. R Development Core Team (2017). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from http://www.r-project.org/.
  56. Rapin, I., & Dunn, M. (2003). Update on the language disorders of individuals on the autistic spectrum. Brain Development, 25, 166–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0387-7604(02)00191-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Riches, N. G., Loucas, T., Baird, G., Charman, T., & Simonoff, E. (2012). Interpretation of compound nouns by adolescents with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders: An investigation of phenotypic overlap. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14, 307–317.  https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2012.679313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Robins, D. L., Casagrande, K., Barton, M., Chen, C. M. A., Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2014). Validation of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers, revised with follow-up (M-CHAT-R/F). Pediatrics, 133, 37–45.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1813.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Rutter, M., Maywood, L., & Howlin, P. (1992). Language delay and social development. In P. Fletcher & D. Hall (Eds.), Specific speech and language disorders in children: correlates, characteristics, and outcomes (pp. 63–78). London: Whurr.Google Scholar
  60. Sasson, N. J., Turner Brown, L. M., Holtzclaw, T. N., Lam, K. S., & Bodfish, J. W. (2008). Children with autism demonstrate circumscribed attention during passive viewing of complex social and nonsocial picture arrays. Autism Research, 1, 31–42.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Sekerina, I. A., & Trueswell, J. C. (2012). Interactive processing of contrastive expressions by Russian children. First Language, 32, 63–87.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723711403981.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith, V., Mirenda, P., & Zaidman-Zait, A. (2007). Predictors of expressive vocabulary growth in children with autism. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 149–160.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/013).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Su, Y. E., Naigles, L. R., & Su, L. Y. (2018). Uneven expressive language development in Mandarin-exposed preschool children with ASD: Comparing vocabulary, grammar, and the decontextualized use of language via the PCDI-Toddler Form. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3614-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Swensen, L. D., Kelley, E., Fein, D., & Naigles, L. R. (2007). Processes of language acquisition in children with autism: Evidence from preferential looking. Child Development, 78, 542–557.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01022.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Tager Flusberg, H., & Kasari, C. (2013). Minimally verbal school aged children with autism spectrum disorder: the neglected end of the spectrum. Autism Research, 6, 468–478.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1981). Sentence comprehension in autistic children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2, 5–24.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S014271640000062X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tager-Flusberg, H. (2000). The challenge of studying language development in autism. In L. Menn & N. B. Ratner (Eds.), Methods for studying language production (pp. 311–330). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  68. Tager-Flusberg, H. (2016). Risk factors associated with language in autism spectrum disorder: Clues to underlying mechanisms. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59, 143–154.  https://doi.org/10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-15-0146.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Tager-Flusberg, H., Paul, R., & Lord, C. (2005). Language and communication in autism. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 335–364). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey-Knowlton, M. J., Eberhard, K. M., & Sedivy, J. C. (1995). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 268, 1632–1634.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7777863.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Tek, S., Mesite, L., Fein, D., & Naigles, L. (2014). Longitudinal analyses of expressive language development reveal two distinct language profiles among young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 75–89.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1853-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Tovar, A. T., Fein, D., & Naigles, L. R. (2015). Grammatical aspect is a strength in the language comprehension of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58, 301–310.  https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0257.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Trueswell, J. C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N. M., & Logrip, M. L. (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying online sentence processing in young children. Cognition, 73, 89–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00032-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Heugten, M., & Shi, R. (2009). French-learning toddlers use gender information on determiners during word recognition. Developmental Science, 12, 419–425.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00788.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Venker, C. E., Eernisse, E. R., Saffran, J. R., & Weismer, S. E. (2013). Individual differences in the real-time comprehension of children with ASD. Autism Research, 6, 417–432.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Wittke, K., Mastergeorge, A. M., Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S. J., & Naigles, L. R. (2017). Grammatical language impairment in autism spectrum disorder: Exploring language phenotypes beyond standardized testing. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 532.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00532.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhan, L. (2018). Scalar and ignorance inferences are both computed immediately upon encountering the sentential connective: The online processing of sentences with disjunction using the visual world paradigm. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 61.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00061.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhan, L., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2015). The online processing of only if and even if conditional statements: Implications for mental models. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, 367–379.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2015.1016527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Zhan, L. (2014). Grammatical aspect and event recognition in children’s online sentence comprehension. Cognition, 133, 262–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2014.06.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhou, P., & Ma, W. (2018). Children’s use of morphological cues in real-time event representation. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 47, 241–260.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-017-9530-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Child Cognition LabTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute for Speech Pathology and the Brain ScienceBeijing Language and Culture UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations