Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 975–997 | Cite as

Developing an Iranian ELT Context-Specific Grit Instrument

  • Saman EbadiEmail author
  • Hiwa Weisi
  • Zahra Khaksar


Grit as an interesting and significant topic in psychology has been associated with better study habits and higher grades through perseverance and passion for long term goals. The only available measurement instrument of grit (Duckworth et al. in J Personal Soc Psychol 92:1087–1101, 2007) is general both in terms of its subject matter and context. Thus, this study aims to develop and validate an English as a foreign language (EFL) grit instrument whose items are specific to EFL context to obtain a more detailed view of its components for Iranian EFL learners, and to tap on other grit related factors in the EFL context. A four component model of EFL grit was developed through reviewing the existing literature and exploring EFL experts’ perspectives. This tentative theoretical model of EFL grit encompasses overarching construct of effort including the following main components: Trying hard to learn English (THLE) having interest in learning English (ILE) practicing a lot in order to learn English (PLE) and having goal for learning English (HGLE). The model was then cross checked against the results of the interviews, and evolved into a scenario-based, 5 point Likert-scale EFL grit instrument. It was later operationalized by an instrument consisting of 26 items, i.e. 6 items for each component plus 2 items for themes 1 and 3. The piloting and testing of the tentative model through exploratory and confirmatory data analyses on a sample of 306 EFL learners indicated the reliability of 0.833 and an acceptable validity. The findings called for a more meaningful interpretation of the concept of grit in relation to Iranian EFL context and offered new insights for higher education administrators considering student academic performance.


Grit. EFL EFL Grit instrument development Validation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Razi UniversityKermanshahIran

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