Advertisement

Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 975–997 | Cite as

Developing an Iranian ELT Context-Specific Grit Instrument

  • Saman Ebadi
  • Hiwa Weisi
  • Zahra Khaksar
Article

Abstract

Grit as an interesting and significant topic in psychology has been associated with better study habits and higher grades through perseverance and passion for long term goals. The only available measurement instrument of grit (Duckworth et al. in J Personal Soc Psychol 92:1087–1101, 2007) is general both in terms of its subject matter and context. Thus, this study aims to develop and validate an English as a foreign language (EFL) grit instrument whose items are specific to EFL context to obtain a more detailed view of its components for Iranian EFL learners, and to tap on other grit related factors in the EFL context. A four component model of EFL grit was developed through reviewing the existing literature and exploring EFL experts’ perspectives. This tentative theoretical model of EFL grit encompasses overarching construct of effort including the following main components: Trying hard to learn English (THLE) having interest in learning English (ILE) practicing a lot in order to learn English (PLE) and having goal for learning English (HGLE). The model was then cross checked against the results of the interviews, and evolved into a scenario-based, 5 point Likert-scale EFL grit instrument. It was later operationalized by an instrument consisting of 26 items, i.e. 6 items for each component plus 2 items for themes 1 and 3. The piloting and testing of the tentative model through exploratory and confirmatory data analyses on a sample of 306 EFL learners indicated the reliability of 0.833 and an acceptable validity. The findings called for a more meaningful interpretation of the concept of grit in relation to Iranian EFL context and offered new insights for higher education administrators considering student academic performance.

Keywords

Grit. EFL EFL Grit instrument development Validation 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Akbari, R., Behzadpoor, F., & Dadvand, B. (2009). Development of english language teaching reflection inventory. System, 38(2), 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akın, A., & Arslan, S. (2014). The relationships between achievement goal orientations and grit. Education and Science, 39, 267–274.Google Scholar
  3. Barsade, S., & Gibson, D. (2007). Why does affect matter in organizations? Academy of Management Perspectives, 7, 36–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Raising resilient children: Fostering strength, hope, and optimism in your child. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J. D. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chang, W. (2014). Grit and academic performance: Is being grittier better? Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. University of Miami, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  8. Cox, C. M. (1926). The early mental traits of three hundred geniuses. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dornyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Doskoch, P. (2014). The winning edge. Psychology today. Advance online publication. Retrieved July 10, 2016 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200510/the-winningedge.
  11. Duckworth, A. (2010). Predicting success: What we know about people who achieve [video file]. Retrieved May 31, 2016 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHATzc9_mxA.
  12. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1087–1101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 166–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Self-discipline gives girls the edge: Gender in self-discipline, grades, and achievement test scores. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 198–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eisenberger, R., & Leonard, R. (1992). Learned industriousness. Psychological Review, 99, 248–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ericsson, K. (2004). Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Academic Medicine, 79(10), S70–S81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ericsson, K., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49(8), 725–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Flicks, U. (1998). An introduction to qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
  19. Galton, F. (1892). Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Macmillan and Co.Google Scholar
  20. Hogan, M. L. (2013). Non-cognitive traits that impact female success in biglaw. Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. University of University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  21. Holstein, J. A., & Gubrium, J. F. (1995). The active interview. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Howe, M. (1999). Prodigies and creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Javedan, M. (2015). Construction and standardization english learning problems inventory in high school. Biquarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 3(5), 107–121.Google Scholar
  24. Johnson, P., & Indvik, J. (1999). Organizational benefits of having emotionally intelligent managers and employees. Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(3), 84–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson, K., & Johnson, H. (1999). Encyclopedic dictionary of applied linguistics: A handbook for language teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kairuz, T., Crump, K., & O’brein, A. (2007). Tools for data collection and analysis. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 278, 371–373.Google Scholar
  27. Karami, H. (2015). Exploratory factor analysis as a construct validation tool: Applications in applied linguistics research. TESOL Journal, 6(3), 476–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lyon, A. C. (2014). Teaching and fostering qualities related to grit. Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. New England College. UMI Number: 3636966.Google Scholar
  31. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2006). Academic resilience and its psychological and educational correlates: A construct validity approach. Psychology in the Schools, 43(3), 267–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitchell, J. V. (2015). Acquisition, development and demonstration of grit among latina teachers from the Central San Joaquin Valley. Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. University of the Pacific Stockton, California.Google Scholar
  33. Moeller, A. K., & Catalano, T. (2015). Foreign language teaching and learning. International Encyclopedia for Social and Behavioral Sciences 2nd Edition, 9, 327–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  35. Nunan, D. (1999). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using the SPSS program (4th ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (4th ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  38. Putwain, D. W., Nicholson, L. J., Connors, L., & Woods, K. (2013). Resilient children are less text anxious and perform better in tests at the end of primary schooling. Learning and Individual Differences, 28, 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (1995). Qualitative interviewing, the art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
  40. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stolz, G. (1997). Spectral theory for slowly oscillating potentials II. Schrödinger operators. Mathematische Nachrichten, 183(1), 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Strayhorn, T. L. (2010). When race and gender collide: Social and cultural capital’s influence on the academic achievement of African American and Latino males. The Review of Higher Education, 33, 307–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology.Google Scholar
  44. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. (2013). Promoting grit, tenacity, and perseverance: Critical factors for success in the 21st century, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  45. Vainio, M., & Daukantait, D. (2015). Grit and different aspects of well-being: Direct and indirect relationships via sense of coherence and authenticity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 2119–2147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Von Culina, K. R., Tsukayama, E., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). Unpacking grit: Motivational correlates of perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 306–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63(3), 249–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Razi UniversityKermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations