Developing an Iranian ELT Context-Specific Grit Instrument
- 159 Downloads
Grit as an interesting and significant topic in psychology has been associated with better study habits and higher grades through perseverance and passion for long term goals. The only available measurement instrument of grit (Duckworth et al. in J Personal Soc Psychol 92:1087–1101, 2007) is general both in terms of its subject matter and context. Thus, this study aims to develop and validate an English as a foreign language (EFL) grit instrument whose items are specific to EFL context to obtain a more detailed view of its components for Iranian EFL learners, and to tap on other grit related factors in the EFL context. A four component model of EFL grit was developed through reviewing the existing literature and exploring EFL experts’ perspectives. This tentative theoretical model of EFL grit encompasses overarching construct of effort including the following main components: Trying hard to learn English (THLE) having interest in learning English (ILE) practicing a lot in order to learn English (PLE) and having goal for learning English (HGLE). The model was then cross checked against the results of the interviews, and evolved into a scenario-based, 5 point Likert-scale EFL grit instrument. It was later operationalized by an instrument consisting of 26 items, i.e. 6 items for each component plus 2 items for themes 1 and 3. The piloting and testing of the tentative model through exploratory and confirmatory data analyses on a sample of 306 EFL learners indicated the reliability of 0.833 and an acceptable validity. The findings called for a more meaningful interpretation of the concept of grit in relation to Iranian EFL context and offered new insights for higher education administrators considering student academic performance.
KeywordsGrit. EFL EFL Grit instrument development Validation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akın, A., & Arslan, S. (2014). The relationships between achievement goal orientations and grit. Education and Science, 39, 267–274.Google Scholar
- Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Raising resilient children: Fostering strength, hope, and optimism in your child. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Brown, J. D. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Chang, W. (2014). Grit and academic performance: Is being grittier better? Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. University of Miami, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
- Cox, C. M. (1926). The early mental traits of three hundred geniuses. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dornyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
- Doskoch, P. (2014). The winning edge. Psychology today. Advance online publication. Retrieved July 10, 2016 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200510/the-winningedge.
- Duckworth, A. (2010). Predicting success: What we know about people who achieve [video file]. Retrieved May 31, 2016 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHATzc9_mxA.
- Flicks, U. (1998). An introduction to qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
- Galton, F. (1892). Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Macmillan and Co.Google Scholar
- Hogan, M. L. (2013). Non-cognitive traits that impact female success in biglaw. Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. University of University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
- Howe, M. (1999). Prodigies and creativity. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Javedan, M. (2015). Construction and standardization english learning problems inventory in high school. Biquarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 3(5), 107–121.Google Scholar
- Kairuz, T., Crump, K., & O’brein, A. (2007). Tools for data collection and analysis. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 278, 371–373.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lyon, A. C. (2014). Teaching and fostering qualities related to grit. Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. New England College. UMI Number: 3636966.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, J. V. (2015). Acquisition, development and demonstration of grit among latina teachers from the Central San Joaquin Valley. Unpublished Doctorate of Education thesis. University of the Pacific Stockton, California.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Nunan, D. (1999). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using the SPSS program (4th ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
- Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS (4th ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
- Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (1995). Qualitative interviewing, the art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
- Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. (2013). Promoting grit, tenacity, and perseverance: Critical factors for success in the 21st century, Washington, DC.Google Scholar