Tracking Reading: Dual Task Costs of Oral Reading for Young Versus Older Adults
- 379 Downloads
A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors such as speaker age or working memory capacity predicted reading and tracking performance. In addition, sentence-by-sentence variation in tracking performance was examined during the production of individual sentences and during the pauses before upcoming sentences. The results suggest that dual tasking has a greater impact on older adults’ reading comprehension and tracking performance. At the level of individual sentences, young and older adults adopt different strategies to deal with grammatically complex and propositionally dense sentences.
KeywordsAging Linguistic processing Dual task demands Reading
This research was supported in part by grants from the NIH to the University of Kansas through the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, grant number P30 HD-002528, and the Center for Biobehavioral Neurosciences in Communication Disorders (BNCD), grant number P30 DC-005803 as well as by grant RO1 AG-025906 from the National Institute on Aging to Susan Kemper. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. We thank Ruth Herman for her assistance with data collection and analysis. A suite of digital pursuit rotor applications is available upon request.
- Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S., Louwerse, M. M., & Cai, Z. (2004). Coh-Metrix: Analysis of text on cohesion and language. Behavior Reseach Methods, Instruments and Computers, 36, 193–202.Google Scholar
- Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. (1988). Working memory, comprehension, and aging: A review and a new view. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 20, pp. 193–226). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, L., & Rovine, M. J. (2007). Multilevel models for the experimental psychologist: foundations and illustrative examples. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 110–117.Google Scholar
- Hummert, M. L. (2009). Group identity, age stereotypes, and communication in a life span context. In H. Giles, S. Reid, & J. Harwood (Eds.), Dynamics of intergroup communication (pp. 41–53). New York: Peter Lang Publishers.Google Scholar
- Kemper, S., Bontempo, D., McKedy, W., Schmalzried, R., Tagliaferri, B., & Kieweg, D. (2010). Tracking sentence planning and production. The Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Science, 66, 160–168.Google Scholar
- Kemper, S., Hoffman, L., Schmalzried, R., Herman, R., Kieweg, D. (2011). Tracking talking: Dual task costs of planning and producing speech for young versus older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 18, 257–279.Google Scholar
- Levin, H., & Buckler-Addis, A. (1979). The eye-voice span. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Levelt, W. J. M. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Reitan, R. M. (1958). Validity of the Trail Making Test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271–276.Google Scholar
- Schneider, B. A., Daneman, M., & Murphy, D. R. (2005). Speech comprehension difficulties in older adults: Cognitive slowing or age-related changes in hearing? Psychology and Aging, 20, 261–271.Google Scholar
- Schneider, B. A., & Pichora Fuller, M. K. (2000). Implications of perceptual deterioration for cognitive aging research. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition (2nd ed., pp. 155–219). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Stata Corp. (2009). Stata statistical software: Release 11. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- Swets, B., Desmet, T., Hambrick, D.Z., Ferreira, F. (2007). The role of working memory in syntactic ambiguity resolution: A psychometric approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 64–81.Google Scholar
- Tagliaferri, B. (2005). Paradigm. www.perceptionresearchsystems.com.