Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 347–370

Construction and Preliminary Validation of a Dictionary for Cognitive Rigidity: Linguistic Markers of Overconfidence and Overgeneralization and their Concomitant Psychological Distress



Fanaticism and extremism are increasingly recognized as seminal to psychopathology and distress, especially considering the increase in political unrest and violence over the last decade. In the psychopathological literature, however, the cognitive style associated with extremism and overgeneralization has long been recognized as a risk factor for emotional distress, leading to both externalizing behavior (e.g. aggression) and internalizing pathology (e.g. depression). Despite its recognized importance, however, virtually no standardized measures of this cognitive style exist. Since direct inquiry about a respondent’s Cognitive Rigidity, is likely to be biased, a text-analytical measure of extremism in spontaneous autobiographical narratives is proposed. In contrast to self-reports, naturally occurring speech often suggests cognitive proclivities towards overgeneralization, overconfidence or extremization. In this study, spoken autobiographical narratives were elicited from 483 participants, and contrasted with extensive mental health information using a hierarchical concordanced-keyword technique. The resulting corpus-based dictionary is context-sensitive, and exhibits significant correlations with measures of negative emotionality, with minimal association with response bias measures.


Cognitive rigidity Overgeneralization Text-analysis Corpus-linguistics Autobiographical narratives Psychological distress 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramson L., Metalsky G., & Alloy L. (1989) Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review 96: 358–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson L. Y., Alloy L. B., Hankin B. L., Haeffel G. J., MacCoon D. G., Gibb B. E. (2002) Cognitive vulnerability stress models of depression in a self-regulatory and psychobiological context. In: Gotlib I. H., Hammen C. L. (eds) Handbook of depression. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Abramson L. Y., Seligman M. E., Teasdale J. D. (1978) Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87(1): 49–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler A. (1930) The pattern of life. Cosmopolitan Book Corporation, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alford B., Beck A. (1997) The integrative power of cognitive therapy. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Andreasen N. J., Pfohl B. (1976) Linguistic analysis of speech in affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 33(11): 1361–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andrews G., Pollock C., Stewart G. (1989) The determination of defense style by questionnaire. Archives of General Psychiatry 46(5): 455–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arkes H. R., Ayton P. (1999) The sunk cost and concorde effects: Are humans less rational than lower animals?. Psychological Bulletin 125(5): 591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arntz A., Gerlsma C., Albersnagel F. A. (1985) Attributional style questioned: Psychometric evaluation of the ASQ in dutch adolescents. Advances in Behaviour Research & Therapy 7(1–2): 55–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asner-Self K., Schreiber J. B. (2004) A factor analytic study of the attributional style questionnaire with central american immigrants. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development 37(3): 144–153Google Scholar
  11. Bargh J. A., Chartrand T. L. (2000) The mind in the middle: A practical guide to priming and automat city research. In: Reis H. T., Judd C. M. (eds) Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology, handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp 253–285Google Scholar
  12. Bates G. W., Jackson H. J., Lawrence J. (1996) Articulated thoughts and styles of self-presentation in heterosexual anxiety. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 10(2): 119–135Google Scholar
  13. Beck A. T. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. International Universities Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  14. Beck A. T. (1987) Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 1(1): 5–37Google Scholar
  15. Beck A. T. (2002) Cognitive models of depression. In: Leahy R. L., Dowd E. T. (eds) Clinical advances in cognitive psychotherapy: Theory and application; clinical advances in cognitive psychotherapy: Theory and application. Springer, New York, NY, pp 29–61Google Scholar
  16. Beck A. T., Brown G., Steer R. A., Weissman A. N. (1991) Factor analysis of the dysfunctional attitude scale in a clinical population. Psychological Assessment 3(3): 478–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beck A. T., Freeman A., Davis D. D. (2004) Cognitive therapy of personality disorders (2nd ed.). Guilford Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  18. Beck A. T., Rush A. J., Shaw B. F., Emery G. (1979) Cognitive therapy for depression. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Beck A. T., Steer R. A., Garbin M. G. (1988) Psychometric properties of the beck depression inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review 8(1): 77–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beck A. T., Ward C. H., Mendelson M., Mock J., Erbaugh J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4: 561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bennett K. K., Elliott M. (2002) Explanatory style and health: Mechanisms linking pessimism to illness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32(7): 1508–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bernard M. E., Cronan F. (1999) The child and adolescent scale of irrationality: Validation data and mental health correlates. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 13(2): 121–132Google Scholar
  23. Biber D., Conrad S., Reppen R. (1998) Corpus linguistics: Investigating language structure and use. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blatt S. J., Zuroff D. C. (2005) Empirical evaluation of the assumptions in identifying evidence based treatments in mental health. Clinical Psychology Review 25: 459–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blau S. (2001) A three-factor model of emotional efficiency: Demandingness, ego-disturbance, and discomfort-disturbance. Union Institute and University, Cincinnati, OHGoogle Scholar
  26. Bond M. (1992) An empirical study of defense styles: The Defense Style Questionnaire. In: Vaillant G. E. (eds) Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp 139–140Google Scholar
  27. Bond M. (2004) Empirical studies of defense style: Relationships with psychopathology and change. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 12(5): 263–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bond M. P. (1995) The development and properties of the Defense Style Questionnaire. In: Conte H. R., Plutchik R. (eds) Ego defenses: Theory and measurement. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 202–220Google Scholar
  29. Bond M. P., Gardner S. T., Christian J., Sigal J. J. (1983) Empirical study of self-rated defense styles. Archives of General Psychiatry 40: 333–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bond M., Perry J. C. (2004) Long-term changes in defense styles with psychodynamic psychotherapy for depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 161: 1665–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bond M., Perry J. C., Gautier M., Goldenberg M. (1989) Validating the self-report of defense styles. Journal of Personality Disorders 3(2): 101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boothe B., von Wyl A., Wepfer R. (1999) Narrative dynamics and psychodynamics. Psychotherapy Research 9(3): 258–273Google Scholar
  33. Brown P., Levinson S. C. (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  34. Bucci W. (1997) Psychoanalysis and cognitive science: A multiple code theory. Guilford Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  35. Bucci W. (2002) The referential process, consciousness, and the sense of self. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 22(5): 766–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cacioppo J. T., von Hippel W., Ernst J. M. (1997) Mapping cognitive structures and processes through verbal content: The thought-listing technique. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 65(6): 928–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Campbell R. S., Pennebaker J. W. (2003) The secret life of pronouns: Flexibility in writing style and physical health. Psychological Science 14(1): 60–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chamberlain J., Haaga D. A. (1999) Convergent validity of cognitive assessment methods. Behavior Modification 23(2): 294–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ciarrochi J. (2004) Relationships between dysfunctional beliefs and positive and negative indices of well-being: A critical evaluation of the common beliefs survey-III. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy 22(3): 171–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cohen J., Cohen P., West S. G., Aiken L. S. (2003) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen S. J. (2011a) Measurement of negativity bias in personal narratives using corpus-based emotion dictionaries. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 40(2): 119–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen, S. J. (2011b). Suicide terrorism: A novel methodology for the study of the terrorist mind. In American society of Criminology annual conference, Washington DC, 11/16-19/2011.Google Scholar
  43. Conte, H. R., Plutchik, R. (eds) (1995) Ego defenses: Theory and measurement. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  44. Cooper H., Findley M. (1982) Expected effect sizes: Estimates for statistical power analysis in social psychology. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 8(1): 168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cope C. S. (1969) Linguistic structure and personality development. Journal of Counseling Psychology 16(5, Pt. 4): 19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Coyne J. C. (1989) Thinking postcognitively about depression. In: Freeman A., Simon K. M. (eds) Comprehensive handbook of cognitive therapy; Comprehensive handbook of cognitive therapy. Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp 227–244Google Scholar
  47. Crowne D. P., Marlowe D. (1960) A new scale of Social Desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology 24: 349–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Crowne D. P., Marlowe D. (1964) The approval motive. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  49. Cutrona C. E., Russell D., Jones R. D. (1984) Cross-situational consistency in causal attributions: Does attributional style exist?. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 47(5): 1043–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dahl H. (1998) The voyage of el rubaiyat to the discovery of FRAMES. In: Bornstein R. F., Masling J. M. (eds) Empirical studies of the therapeutic hour; empirical studies of the therapeutic hour. Empirical studies of psychoanalytic theories (Vol. 8). American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 179–227Google Scholar
  51. Davidson D. (1984) Thought and talk: Inquiries into truth and interpretation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 155–170Google Scholar
  52. Davidson D. (1997) Seeing through language. In: Preston J. (eds) Thought and language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  53. Davison G. C., Robins C., Johnson M. K. (1983) Articulated thoughts during simulated situations: A paradigm for studying cognition in emotion and behavior. Cognitive Therapy & Research 7(1): 17–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Davison G. C., Vogel R. S., Coffman S. G. (1997) Think-aloud approaches to cognitive assessment and the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 65(6): 950–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. de Graaf L. E., Roelofs J., Huibers M. J. (2009) Measuring dysfunctional attitudes in the general population: The dysfunctional attitude scale (form A) revised. Cognitive Therapy Research 33: 345–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. de Swart H. (1993) Adverbs of quantification: A generalized quantifier approach. Garland Publishing Inc, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  57. Dean A. C. (2004) Splitting in normal and pathological populations from the perspective of predictive control theory: A reconceptualization. Theory & Psychology 14(1): 29–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Derogatis L. R. (1994) SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring and procedures manual. National Computer Systems Inc, Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
  59. Derogatis L. R., Rickels K., Rock A. F. (1976) The SCL-90 and the MMPI: A step in the validation of a new self-report scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 128: 280–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Derogatis L. R., Savitz K. L. (2000) The SCL-90-R and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in primary care. In: Maruish M. E. (eds) Handbook of psychological assessment in primary care settings. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 297–334Google Scholar
  61. Deveney C. M., Deldin P. J. (2006) A preliminary investigation of cognitive flexibility for emotional information in major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. Emotion 6(3): 429–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. DiGiuseppe R. (1996) The nature of irrational and rational beliefs: Progress in rational emotive behavior theory. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy 14(1): 5–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dobson K. S., Shaw B. F. (1986) Cognitive assessment with major depressive disorders. Cognitive Therapy & Research 10(1): 13–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Doetjes J. S. (1997) Quantifiers and selection: On the distribution of quantifying expressions in French, Dutch and English. Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  65. Dryden W., Ellis A. (1988) Rational-emotive therapy. In: Dobson K. S. (eds) Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies; Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press, New York, NY, pp 214–272Google Scholar
  66. Eckert, P., Rickford, J. R. (eds) (2001) Style and sociolinguistic variation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  67. Eckhardt C. I., Kassinove H. (1998) Articulated cognitive distortions and cognitive deficiencies in martially violent men. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 12(3): 231–250Google Scholar
  68. Ellis A. (1962) Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. L. Stuart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Ellis A. (1994) Reason and emotion in psychotherapy: Revised and updated. Birch Lane Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Ellis A. (1997) Must musturbation and demandingness lead to emotional disorders?. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 34(1): 95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ellis A. (2000) Rational-emotive therapy. In: Corsini R. J., Wedding D. (eds) Current psychotherapies (6th ed.). Peacock, Itasca, pp 168–204Google Scholar
  72. Ellis H. C., Seibert P. S., Herbert B. J. (1990) Mood state effects on thought listing. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28(2): 147–150Google Scholar
  73. Ellis T. E. (1986) Toward a cognitive therapy for suicidal individuals. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 17: 125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Endler N. S., Parker J. D. A. (2002) Assessing a patient’s ability to cope. In: Butcher J. N. (eds) Clinical personality assessment: Practical approaches (2nd ed.); clinical personality assessment: Practical approaches (2nd ed.) oxford textbooks in clinical psychology (Vol. 2). Oxford University Press, London, pp 335–360Google Scholar
  75. Fast L. A., Funder D. C. (2008) Personality as manifest in word use: Correlations with self-report, acquaintance report, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94: 334–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fresco D. M., Rytwinski N. K., Craighead L. W. (2007) Explanatory flexibility and negative life events interact to predict depression symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 26: 595–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Friedman, E. T. (2000). The balanced states of mind model: Optimal cognitive balance and the consequences of excess positivity. Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 60 (7-B), 3563. (UMI Dissertation Order Number AEH9939996).
  78. Gawronski B., Bodenhausen G. V. (2006) Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin 132: 692–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gibb B. E., Alloy L. B., Abramson L. Y., Beevers C. G., Miller I. W. (2004) Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113: 81–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Glass C. R., Arnkoff D. B. (1997) Questionnaire methods of cognitive self-statement assessment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 65(6): 911–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gotlib I. H. (1984) Depression and general psychopathology in university students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93(1): 19–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gottschalk L. A., Gleser G. C. (1969) The measurement of psychological states through the content analysis of verbal behavior. U. California Press, Oxford, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  83. Grant P. M., Beck A. T. (2009) Defeatist beliefs as a mediator of cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35: 798–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Haaga D. A., Dyck M. J., Ernst D. (1991) Empirical status of cognitive theory of depression. Psychological Bulletin 110(2): 215–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Haaga D. A. F. (1997) Introduction to the special section on measuring cognitive products in research and practice. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 65(6): 907–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Haeffel G. J., Abramson L. Y., Brazy P., Shah J., Teachman B., Nosek B. (2007) Explicit and implicit cognition: A preliminary test of a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability. Behaviour Research and Therapy 45: 1155–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Halliday M. A. K. (1994) An introduction to functional grammar (2nd ed.). Arnold Press, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  88. Hart R., Jarvis S. (1997) Political Debate. American Behavioural Scientist 40(8): 1095–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Herbert J. D., Rheingold A. A., Brandsma L. L. (2001) Assessment of social anxiety and social phobia. In: Hofmann S. G., DiBartolo P. M. (eds) From social anxiety to social phobia: Multiple perspectives; From social anxiety to social phobia: Multiple perspectives.. Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, pp 20–45Google Scholar
  90. Hewitt P. L., Flett G. L. (2002) Perfectionism and stress processes in psychopathology. In: Flett G. L., Hewitt P. L. (eds) Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment; perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 255–284Google Scholar
  91. Hirsh J., Peterson J. (2009) Personality and language use in selfnarratives. Journal of Research in Personality 43: 524–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hofmann W., Gawronski B., Gschwendner T., Le H., Schmitt M. (2005) A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31: 1369–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Holi M. M., Sammallahti P. R., Aalbert V. A. (1999) Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: An empirical study. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 187(11): 654–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hollon S. D., Kendall P. C., Lumry A. (1986) Specificity of depressotypic cognitions in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95(1): 52–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Horney K. (1937) The neurotic personality of our time. W. W. Norton, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  96. Horowitz L. M. (1979) On the cognitive structure of interpersonal problems treated in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 47(1): 5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hymes D. (1974) Ways of speaking. In: Bauman R., Sherzer J. (eds) Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 433–451Google Scholar
  98. Hyphantis T. (2010) The Greek version of the Defense Style Questionnaire: Psychometric properties in three different samples. Comprehensive Psychiatry 51(6): 618–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ingram R. E., Miranda J., Segal Z. V. (1998) Cognitive vulnerability to depression. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Irvine J. (1996) Language and community: Introduction. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 6: 123–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Joiner T. E., Wagner K. D. (1995) Attribution style and depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review 15(8): 777–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kamimura T., Oi K. (1998) Argumentative strategies in American and Japanese English. World Englishes 17(3): 307–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Katz R., Katz J., Shaw B. F. (1999) Beck depression inventory and hopelessness scale (2nd ed.). In: Maruish M. E. (eds) The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (2nd ed.); The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 921–933Google Scholar
  104. Kennedy, C. (2002). The landscape of vagueness. Technical Report, Northwestern University. Available: Accessed on February 14, 2005.
  105. Kienhorst C. W., Van den Bout J., de Wilde E. J. (1993) Does the rational behavior inventory (RBI) assess irrationality or emotional distress?. Personality & Individual Differences 14(2): 375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Koopmans P. C., Sanderman R., Timmerman I., Emmelkamp P. M. G. (1994) The Irrational Beliefs In-ventory (IBI): Development and psychometric evaluation. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 10(1): 15–27Google Scholar
  107. Krantz S., Hammen C. L. (1979) Assessment of cognitive bias in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88(6): 611–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lee F., Peterson C. (1997) Content analysis of archival data. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 65(6): 959–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lefebvre M. F. (1981) Cognitive distortion and cognitive errors in depressed psychiatric and low back pain patients. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 49(4): 517–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lex C., Meyer T. D., Marquart B., Thau K. (2008) No strong evidence for abnormal levels of dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and emotional information-processing biases in remitted bipolar I affective disorder. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 81: 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Luborsky L., Barber J. P., Crits-Christoph P. (1990) Theory-based research for understanding the process of dynamic psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 58(3): 281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Luborsky L., Crits-Christoph P. (1998) Understanding transference: The core conflictual relationship theme method (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. McDermut J. F., Haaga D. A. F., Bilek L. A. (1997) Cognitive bias and irrational beliefs in major depression and dysphoria. Cognitive Therapy & Research 21(4): 459–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Mergenthaler E., Stinson C. H. (1992) Psychotherapy transcription standards. Psychotherapy Research 2(2): 125–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Messer S. C., Kempton T., Van Hasselt V. B., Null J. A. (1994) Cognitive distortions and adolescent affective disorder: Validity of the CNCEQ in an inpatient sample. Behavior Modification 18(3): 339–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Muran J. C., Kassinove H., Dill C. A. (1992) Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of irrational language with clinical and nonclinical subjects. Journal of Clinical Psychology 48(2): 194–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Muris P., Merckelbach H. (1996) The short version of the Defense Style Questionnaire: Factor and psychopathological correlates. Personality & Individual Differences 20(1): 123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Murray N., Sujan H., Hirt E. R., Sujan M. (1990) The influence of mood on categorization: A cognitive flexibility interpretation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 59(3): 411–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nolen-Hoeksema S. (1991) Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100: 569–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. O’Connor B. P., Dyce J. A. (2001) Rigid and extreme: A geometric representation of personality disorders in five-factor model space. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81(6): 1119–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Olkin I., Finn J. D. (1990) Testing correlated correlations. Psychological Bulletin 108(2): 330–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Olkin I., Finn J. D. (1995) Correlations redux. Psychological Bulletin 118(1): 155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ouimet A. J., Gawronski B., Dozois D. J. A. (2009) Cognitive vulnerability to anxiety: a review and an integrative model. Clinical Psychology Review 29: 459–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Oxman T. E., Rosenberg S. D., Schnurr P. P., Tucker G. J. (1988) Diagnostic classification through content analysis of patients’ speech. American Journal of Psychiatry 145(4): 464–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Pennebaker, J. W., Chung, C. K. (2008). Computerized text analysis of Al-Qaeda transcripts. In K. Krippendorf & M. A. Bock, The content analysis reader. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  126. Pennebaker, J. W., Chung, C. K., Ireland, M., Gonzales, A. L., & Booth, R. J. (2007). The development and psychometric properties of LIWC2007. Technical Manual. Austin, TX: Scholar
  127. Pennebaker J. W., Francis M. E., Booth R. J. (2001) Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC): LIWC2001. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  128. Pennebaker J. W., King L. A. (1999) Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 77(6): 1296–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pennebaker J. W., Mayne T. J., Francis M. E. (1997) Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 72(4): 863–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pennebaker J. W., Mehl M. R., Niederhoffer K. G. (2003) Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual Review of Psychology 54: 547–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Perry J. C., Cooper S. H. (1986) A preliminary report on defenses and conflicts associated with borderline personality disorder. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 34: 863–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Perry J. C., Høglend P. (1998) Convergent and discriminant validity of overall defensive functioning. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 186(9): 529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Peterson C. (1982) The attributional style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy & Research 6(3): 287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Peterson C., Bettes B. A., Seligman M. E. (1985) Depressive symptoms and unprompted causal attributions: Content analysis. Behaviour Research & Therapy 23(4): 379–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Peterson C., Buchanan G. M., Seligman M. E. (1995) Explanatory style: History and evolution of the field. In: Buchanan G. M., Seligman M. E. P. (eds) Explanatory style. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  136. Peterson C., Luborsky L., Seligman M. E. (1983) Attributions and depressive mood shifts: A case study using the symptom-context model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92(1): 96–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Peterson C., Maier S. F., Seligman M. E. P. (1993) Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  138. Peterson C., Ulrey L. M. (1994) Can explanatory style be scored from TAT protocols?. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 20(1): 102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Peterson T. J., Feldman G., Harley R., Fresco D. M., Graves L., Holmes A. et al (2008) Extreme response style in recurrent and chronically depressed patients: Change with antidepressant administration and stability during continuation treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 75: 145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Popa S. (2001) Interview with albert ellis: The “cognitive revolution” in psychotherapy. Romanian Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies 1(1): 7–16Google Scholar
  141. Popp C. A., Diguer L., Luborsky L., Faude J. (1996) Repetitive relationship themes in waking narratives and dreams. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 64(5): 1073–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Prentice S., Taylor P., Rayson P., Hoskins A., O’Loughlin B. (2011) Analyzing the semantic content and persuasive composition of extremist media: A case study of texts produced during the Gaza conflict. Information Systems Frontiers 13: 61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Quirk R. (1985) A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Longman, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  144. Rector N.A., Segal Z.V., Gear M. (1998) Schema research in depression: A Canadian perspective. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Special issue: Canadian Perspectives on Research in Depression 30(4): 213–224Google Scholar
  145. Richard F. D., Bond C. F. J., Stokes-Zoota J. J. (2003) One hundred years of social psychology quantitatively described. Review of General Psychology 7(4): 331–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Robins C. J., Hinkley K. (1989) Social-cognitive processing and depressive symptoms in children: A comparison of measures. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17(1): 29–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Roefs A., Huijding J., Smulders F. T. Y., MacLeod C. M., de Jong P. J., Wiers R. W., Jansen A. T. M. (2011) Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research. Psychological Bulletin 137(1): 149–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rosenberg S. D., Schnurr P. P., Oxman T. E. (1990) Content analysis: A comparison of manual and computerized systems. Journal of Personality Assessment 54(1–2): 298–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ruscio A. M., Ruscio J. (2002) The latent structure of analogue depression: Should the beck depression inventory be used to classify groups?. Psychological Assessment 14(2): 135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Santor D. A., Coyne J. C. (2001) Evaluating the continuity of symptomatology between depressed and nondepressed individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110(2): 216–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Santor D. A., Zuroff D. C., Ramsay J. O., Cervantes P. (1995) Examining scale discriminability in the BDI and CES-D as a function of depressive severity. Psychological Assessment 7(2): 131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Scher C. D., Ingram R. E., Segal Z. V. (2005) Cognitive reactivity and vulnerability: Empirical evaluation of construct activation and cognitive diatheses in unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review 25: 487–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schnurr P. P., Rosenberg S. D., Oxman T. E., Tucker G. J. (1986) A methodological note on content analysis: Estimates of reliability. Journal of Personality Assessment 50(4): 601–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Segal Z. V., Ingram R. E. (1994) Mood priming and construct activation in tests of cognitive vulnerability to unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review 14(7): 663–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shafran R., Mansell W. (2001) Perfectionism and psychopathology: A review of research and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 21(6): 879–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Shedler J., Karliner R., Katz E. (2003) Cloning the clinician: A method for assessing illusory mental health. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Special Issue: International Clinical Psychology 59(6): 635–650Google Scholar
  157. Shepard C. A., Giles H., LePoire B. A. (2001) Communication accommodation theory. In: Robinson W. P., Giles H. (eds) The new handbook of language and social psychology. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 33–56Google Scholar
  158. Simons A. D., Garfield S. L., Murphy G. E. (1984) The process of change in cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Changes in mood and cognition. Archives of General Psychiatry 41(1): 45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sinclair J. (1991) Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  160. Smith, C. P. (2000) Content analysis and narrative analysis. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd, Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Smith T. W. (1989) Assessment in rational-emotive therapy: Empirical access to the ABCD model. In: Bernard M. E., DiGiuseppe R. (eds) Inside rational-emotive therapy: A critical appraisal of the theory and therapy of albert ellis; Inside rational-emotive therapy: A critical appraisal of the theory and therapy of albert ellis. Personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy (Vol. 38). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 135–153Google Scholar
  162. Smith T. W., Zurawski R. M. (1983) Assessment of irrational beliefs: The question of discriminant validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology 39(6): 976–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Spence D. P. (1980) Lawfulness in lexical choice: A natural experiment. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 28(1): 115–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sullivan M. J., D’Eon J.L. (1990) Relation between catastrophizing and depression in chronic pain patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 99(3): 260–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sullivan P. F., Bulik C. M., Carter F. A., Gendall K. A., Joyce P. R. (1996) The significance of a prior history of anorexia in bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders 20: 253–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sweeney P. D., Anderson K., Bailey S. (1986) Attributional style in depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 50(5): 974–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Szabo M. (2003) The cognitive content and affective experience of worry in adults and children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 64(2-B): 952Google Scholar
  168. Tausczik Y. R., Pennebaker J. W. (2010) The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 29: 24–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Teasdale J. D. (1988) Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion 2: 247–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Teasdale J. D., Taylor M. J., Cooper Z., Hayhurst H., Paykel E. S. (1995) Depressive thinking: Shifts in construct accessibility or in schematic mental models?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104(3): 500–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tennen H., Hall J. A., Affleck G. (1995) Depression research methodologies in the journal of personality and social psychology: A review and critique. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 68(5): 870–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Vasta R., Brockner J. (1979) Self-esteem and self-evaluative covert statements. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 47(4): 776–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Viney L. L. (1983) The assessment of psychological states through content analysis of verbal communications. Psychological Bulletin 94(3): 542–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Warner A. (1993) English auxiliaries: Structure and history. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Watkins J. T., Rush A. J. (1983) Cognitive response test. Cognitive Therapy & Research 7(5): 425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Weems C. F., Berman S. L., Silverman W. K., Saavedra L. M. (2001) Cognitive errors in youth with anxiety disorders: The linkages between negative cognitive errors and anxious symptoms. Cognitive Therapy & Research 25(5): 559–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wenzlaff R. M., Bates D. E. (1998) Unmasking a cognitive vulnerability to depression: How lapses in mental control reveal depressive thinking. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 75(6): 1559–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wenzlaff R. M., Grozier S. A. (1988) Depression and the magnification of failure. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97(1): 90–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wenzlaff R. M., Rude S. S., West L. M. (2002) Cognitive vulnerability to depression: The role of thought suppression and attitude certainty. Cognition & Emotion 16(4): 533–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. White J., Davison G. C., Haaga D. A., White K. (1992) Cognitive bias in the articulated thoughts of depressed and nondepressed psychiatric patients. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 180(2): 77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Williams, K. M., Paulhus, D. L., & Nathanson, C. (2003, May). Personality correlates of emotional reactions to 9/11. Poster presented at the 83rd Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  182. Wilson J. H., Taylor P. J., Robertson G. (1985) The validity of the SCL-90 in a sample of British men remanded to prison for psychiatric reports. British Journal of Psychiatry 147: 400–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Winters N. C., Myers K., Proud L. (2002) Ten-year review of rating scales III: Scales assessing suicidality, cognitive style, and self esteem. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(10): 1150–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wojtkowski, S. (1993). Linguistic indicators of introversion and extraversion: A study of the relationship between linguistic and personological styles. (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (6-B), 3357.
  185. Yarkoni T. (2010) Personality in 100,000 words: A large-scale analysis of personality and word use among bloggers. Journal of Research in Personality 44: 363–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Young J. E. (1990) Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Practitioner’s Resources Series, Sarasota, FLGoogle Scholar
  187. Zanarini M. C., Weingeroff J. L., Frankenburg F. R. (2009) Defense mechanisms associated with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders 23(2): 113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ziegler D. J., Leslie Y. M. (2003) A test of the ABC model underlying rational emotive behavior therapy. Psychological Reports 92(1): 235–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations