Customized three-dimensional porous catalyst for Knoevenagel reaction

  • Yan Jiang
  • Fu-Quan Jiang
  • Xu Liao
  • Shi-Lin Lai
  • Shi-Bin Wang
  • Xing-Quan XiongEmail author
  • Jun ZhengEmail author
  • Yuan-Gang LiuEmail author


Despite the success in the fabrication of various arbitrary-sized one-dimensional architectures, researches still face specific disadvantages of uncontrollable porosity and disordered structures, leading to a deficiency in micro-sized porous for efficient catalytic performance. To improve these limitations, herein, fabricating controllable microstructures based on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was conducted for catalysis applications. Initially, a multi-channel organized structure printed by silica (SiO2) powder was as the support, onto which different organic functional groups were immobilized. Prior to exploring the catalytic efficiency, different techniques were used to investigate the characterization of 3D-SiO2 systematically. Amongst various immobilized functional groups, the 3D-SiO2 modified with diethylenetriamine showed the best catalytic activity for Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Moreover, the results showed that 3D-SiO2 enhanced catalytic activities of over 90% in only 30 min and could be reused more than ten times with high-performance efficiency while transforming various aldehydes in the presence of malononitrile.


3D printing Controllable structure Heterogeneous catalyst Knoevenagel reaction 



We thank the Financial support from the National Marine Economic Innovation and Development Project (16PYY007SF17), the United Fujian Provincial Health and Education Project for Tracking Key Research (WKJ2016-2-22), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian province (No. 2016J01063) and the Program for Innovative Research Team in Science and Technology at Fujian Province University. We also thank Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Pei Wang and Le-Qing Fan for improvising the revision. The funding was also provided by Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (2015J05169).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials Science and EngineeringHuaqiao UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Target ResearchXiamen UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Chemical EngineeringHuaqiao UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute of Pharmaceutical EngineeringHuaqiao UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical TechnologyXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.School of Materials Science and EngineeringXiamen University of TechnologyXiamenPeople’s Republic of China

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