Microtubular carbon fibers derived from bamboo and wood as sustainable anodes for lithium and sodium ion batteries
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Herein, a brief and scalable strategy to convert bamboo and woods into uniform hollow cellulose fibers with micrometer-size through a simple delignification process in nitric acid solutions is presented. Next, these cellulose fibers are further transformed into individual microtubular carbon fibers by a carbonization treatment. The evolved carbon fibers show an amorphous organization, large interlayer distances (0.39–0.40 nm) and narrow pore size distributions (0–10 nm), consequently exhibit superior electrochemical performance (vs. Li/Li+) in comparison with practical graphite anode. A high reversible capacity of 435 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1, as well as competitive rate capacity (up to 150 mA h g−1 at 2 A g−1) and stability over long-term cycling (76% capacity retention at 500 mA g−1 after 500 cycles) is achieved. Furthermore, a majority of reversible capacity was delivered by these carbon fibers at an obvious low discharging-charging potential plateau (0–0.1 V) as lithium ion battery anodes. When the carbon fibers derived from bamboo and paulownia are tested vs. Na/Na+, reversible capacities of 320 and 302 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1 are delivered, respectively.
KeywordsBiomass Carbon fiber Sustainable anode Lithium ion battery Sodium ion battery
This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0600202), Scientific Research Foundation of Central South University of Forestry and Technology (104-0452, 2018YC003).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.