Journal of Porous Materials

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 529–536 | Cite as

Novel methods to fabricate macroporous 3D carbon scaffolds and ordered surface mesopores on carbon filaments

Article

Abstract

New methods for fabrication of 3D macroporous carbon scaffolds and synthesis of mesopores on carbon surfaces are proposed. Ordered macroporous filamentary carbon structures were made by rapid prototyping using solvent-based extrusion freeforming which allows the scaffold to be designed on computer and downloaded directly to a building platform. The surface of extruded filaments was decorated with 20–25 nm open mesopores by coating with nano-silica as a hard template followed by pyrolysis and dissolution of the silica. This left an open mesoporous surface to serve as a host for catalysts or enzymes while retaining integrity in the core for electrical and mechanical performance. The combination of these two methods could be used to make different hierarchical, multi-functional carbon structures which could be applied in fuel cells as the catalyst carrier and biofuel cell electrode.

Keywords

Mesopores Carbon Silica colloid Filamentary macroporous structure 

References

  1. 1.
    J.S. Yu, S. Kang, S.B. Yoon, G. Chai, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 9382 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.P. Brandon, D.J. Brett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 147 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Rinaldi, B. Mecheri, V. Garavaglia, S. Licoccia, P.D. Nardo, E. Traversa, Energy Environ. Sci. 1, 417 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Zhu, S. Qiu, F. Gao, D. Li, Y. Li, R. Wang, B. Gao, B. Li, Y. Guo, R. Xu, Z. Liu, O. Terasaki, J. Mater. Chem. 11, 1687 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.H. Park, Y. Xia, Chem. Mater. 10, 1745 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.S. Nam, J.J. Yoon, T.G. Park, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A. 53, 1 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Yang, S. Yang, X. Chi, J.R.G. Evans, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 79, 116 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Lu, Y. Lee, S. Yang, Y. Hao, J.R.G. Evans, C.G. Parini, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30, 1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Bellini, Doctoral Thesis, Drexel University, Sept 2002Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.E. Smay, G.M. Gratson, R.E. Shepherd, J. Cesarano III, J.A. Lewis, Adv. Mater. 14, 1279 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Kim, H. Jia, P. Wang, Biotech. Adv. 24, 296 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.-H. Lu, F. Schüth, Adv. Mater. 18, 1793 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.-H. Lu, B. Spliethoff, F. Schüth, Chem. Mater. 20, 5314 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Ozaki, N. Endo, W. Ohiui, K. Igarashi, M. Nakahara, A. Oya, S. Yoshida, T. Iizuka, Carbon 35, 1031 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Tanaka, Y. Katayama, M.P. Tate, H.W. Hillhouse, Y. Miyake, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 3639 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Meng, D. Gu, F. Zhang, Y. Shi et al., Chem. Mater. 18, 4447 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.-H. Lu, W.C. Li, W. Schmidt, F. Schüth, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 80, 117 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Kruk, M. Jaroniec, R. Ryoo, S.H. Joo, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7960 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.H. Joo, S. Jun, R. Ryoo, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 44–45, 153 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Baldrianova, I. Svancara, S. Sotiropoulos, Anal. Chim. Acta 599, 249 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Cervini, L.A. Ramos, E.T.G. Cavalheiro, Talanta 72, 206 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.-B. Yang, L.-C. Ling, L. Liu, F.-Y. Kang, Z.-H. Huang, H. Wua, Carbon 40, 911 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Yang, H. Yang, X. Chi, J.R.G. Evans, I. Thompson, R.J. Cook, P. Robinson, Mater. Design 29, 1802 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Szabo, O. Berkesi, P. Forgo, K. Josepovits, Y. Sanakis, D. Petridis, I. Dekany, Chem. Mater. 18, 2740 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Barriere, A.J. Downard, J. Solid State Electrochem. 12, 1231 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Diaconu, S.C. Litescu, G.L. Radu, Sensors Actuators B Chem. 145, 800 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Huang, C. Liu, H. Xiao, J. Wang, D. Jiang, E. Gu, Int. J. Nanomed 2, 775 (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    F. Barriere, P. Kavanagh, D. Leech, Electrochim. Acta 51, 5187 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Q. Gu, PhD Dissertation, Queen Mary College, University of London (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.School of Engineering ScienceUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations