Wind-driven waterbodies: a new category of lake within an alternative sedimentologically-based lake classification
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Lakes are common natural systems for which sedimentation is considered to be relatively simple, generally dominated by fluvial processes along the margin and prevailing low-energy settling in the central, deeper parts. However, for many lakes, higher-energy wind-driven processes dominate. As such, a new category of lakes is proposed, herein referred to as wind-driven waterbodies (WWB). WWB display a sedimentation largely dominated by wave related processes and wind-induced lake-scale water circulation evidenced by the construction of beach ridges, spits or cuspate spits along their shorelines, and by sediment drifts, sedimentary shelf progradation and erosional surfaces in their deeper, offshore domains. WWB are observed worldwide, they share a common physiography that favours wind-forced hydrodynamics and related sedimentation patterns. This physiography is expressed by the IWWB index, a ratio of the maximum representative fetch relative to mean basin depth. It is proposed that an index value greater than three favours the evolution of a lake as a WWB. The WWB concept represents a new end-member in an alternative, sedimentologically-based lake classification that is proposed in this paper.
KeywordsWind-induced hydrodynamics Beach ridges Spits Sediment drifts Lakes
This study is supported by the GLADYS-SOLTC project (www.gladys-littoral.org) and www.soltc.org), ANR-KUNSHEN (ANR-2010-006), and NUCLEASPIT/PEPS-IN2P3. We acknowledge financial support from the CNRS-INSU (action SYSTER), and from “Fondation Université de Strasbourg” and “Cercle Gutenberg”. Finally, we are grateful to anonymous reviewer 1 and Steven Andrews for their useful reviews of the manuscript.
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