Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 219–235 | Cite as

Late Quaternary climatic changes in southern Chile, as recorded in a diatom sequence of Lago Puyehue (40°40′ S)

  • Mieke Sterken
  • Elie Verleyen
  • Koen Sabbe
  • Griet Terryn
  • Francois Charlet
  • Sébastien Bertrand
  • Xavier Boës
  • Nathalie Fagel
  • Marc De Batist
  • Wim Vyverman
Original Paper


A late Quaternary diatom stratigraphy of Lago Puyehue (40°40′ S, 72°28′ W) was examined in order to infer past limnological and climatic changes in the South-Chilean Lake District. The diatom assemblages were well preserved in a 1,122 cm long, 14C-dated sediment core spanning the last 17,900 years, and were in support of an early deglaciation of Lago Puyehue. The presence of a short cold spell in South Chile, equivalent to the Younger Dryas event in the Northern Hemisphere, the Antarctic Cold Reversal in Antarctica, or the Huelmo-Mascardi event in southern South America, was not clearly evidenced in the diatom data, although some climate instability may have occurred between 13,400 and 11,700 cal. yr. BP, and a relatively long period (between 16,850 and 12,810 cal. yr. BP) with low absolute abundances and biovolumes could be tentatively interpreted as a period of low rainfall and/or temperatures. An increase in the moisture supply to the lake was tentatively inferred at 12,810 cal. yr. BP. After 9,550 cal. yr. BP, inferred stronger and longer persisting summer stratification, may have been the result of the higher temperatures associated with an early-Holocene thermal optimum. The mid-Holocene appeared to be characterized by a decrease in precipitation, culminating around 5,000 cal. yr. BP, and rising again after 3,000 cal. yr. BP, likely associated with a previously documented lowered frequency and amplitude of El Niño events. An increase in precipitation during the late Holocene (3,000 cal. yr. BP–present) might have marked subsequent increased frequency of El Niño occurrences, leading to drier summers and slightly moister winters in the area.


Diatoms El Niño Chile Paleolimnology Lago Puyehue Deglaciation Paleoclimate Westerlies Younger Dryas Last Glacial Maximum 



This research is supported by the Belgian SSTC project EV/12/10B “A continuous Holocene record of ENSO variability in southern Chile”. C. Beck, M. Tardy, F. Arnaud, V. Lignier, X. Boës, S. Bertrand, F. Charlet, F. Devleeschouwer, L. Vargas Ramirez, W. San Martin and A. Peña have done the coring fieldwork. Valuable assistance for the fieldwork (2001–2002) was provided by M. Pino, M. Mardones and R. Urrutia.


  1. Abarzúa AM, Villagrán C, Moreno P (2004) Deglacial and postglacial climate history in east-central Isla Grande de Chiloé, southern Chile (43°S). Quat Res 62:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott MB, Seltzer GO, Kelts KR, Southon J (1997) Holocene paleohydrology of the tropical Andes from lake records. Quat Res 47:70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariztegui D, Bianchi MM, Masaferro J, Lafargue E, Niessen F (1997) Interhemispheric synchrony of late-glacial climatic instability as recorded in proglacial Lake Mascardi, Argentina. J Quat Sci 12:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnaud F, Magand O, Chapron E, Bertrand S, Boës X, Charlet F, Mélières MA (2006) Radionuclide dating (Pb–210, Cs–137, Am–241) of recent lake sediments in a highly active geodynamic settings (Lakes Puyehue and Icalma – Chilean Lake District). Sci Total Environ 366:837–850Google Scholar
  5. Battarbee RW, Kneen M (1982) The use of electronically counted microspheres in absolute diatom analysis. Limnol Oceanogr 27:184–188Google Scholar
  6. Bennett KD, Haberle SG, Lumley SH (2000) The last glacial-Holocene transition in Southern Chile. Science 290:325–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentley MJ (1997) Relative and radiocarbon chronology of two former glaciers in the Chilean Lake District. J Quat Sci 12:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berger AL (1978) Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climatic changes. J Atmos Sci 35:2362–2367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertrand S (2002) Caractérisation des apports sédimentaires lacustres de la region des lacs, Chili Méridional (Exemple des lacs Icalma et Puyehue). Unpublished MSc Thesis, Department of Geology, University of Liège, 51 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertrand S, Charlet F, Charlier B, Renson V, Fagel, N (2007) Climate variability of southern Chile since the Last Glacial Maximum: a continuous sedimentological record from Lago Puyehue (40°S). J Paleolimnol  doi:10.1007/s10933-007-9117-y (this issue)
  11. Blinn DW, Hevly RH, Davis OK (1994) Continuous Holocene record of diatom stratigraphy, paleohydrology, and anthropogenic activity in a spring-mound in southwestern United-States. Quat Res 42:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bracco R, Inda H, del Puerto L, Castiñera C, Sprechmann P, Garcia-Rodríguez F (2005) Relationships between Holocene sea-level variations, trophic development, and climatic change in Negra Lagoon, Southern Uruguay. J Paleolimnol 33:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campos H, Steffen W, Agüero G, Parra O, Zúñiga L (1989) Estudios limnologicos en el Lago Puyehue (Chile): Morfometria, factores fisicos y quimicos, plancton y productividad primaria. Medio Ambiente 10:36–53Google Scholar
  14. Charlet F, De Batist M, Chapron E, Bertrand S, Pino M, Urrutia R (2007) Seismic stratigraphy of Lago Puyehue (Chilean Lake District): new views on its deglacial and Holocene evolution. J Paleolimnol  doi:10.1007/s10933-007-9112-3 (this issue)
  15. Cholnoky BJ (1968) Die Ökologie der Diatomeen in Binnengewassern. J. Cramer, Lehre, 699 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Clapperton CM (1993) Quaternary geology and geomorphology of South America. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 800 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Clapperton CM, Hall M, Mothes P, Hole MJ, Still JW, Helmens KF, Kuhry P, Gemmel AMD (1997) A Younger Dryas icecap in the equatorial Andes. Quat Res 47:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clement AC, Seager R, Cane MA (2000) Suppression of El Niño during the Mid-Holocene by changes in the Earth’s orbit. Paleoceanography 15:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cox EJ (1996) Identification of freshwater diatoms from live material. Chapman and Hall, London, 158 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Cuker BE, Gama PT, Burkholder JM (1990) Type of suspended clay influences lake productivity and phytoplankton community response to phosphorus loading. Limnol Oceanogr 35:830–839Google Scholar
  21. Czernik T, Goslar T (2001) Preparation of graphite targets in the Gwilice radiocarbon laboratory for AMS 14C dating. Radiocarbon 43:283–291Google Scholar
  22. De Batist M, Fagel N, Loutre MF, Chapron E (2007) A 17,900-year multi-proxy lacustrine record of Lago Puyehue (Chilean Lake District): introduction. J Paleolimnol  doi:10.1007/s10933-007-9113-2 (this issue)
  23. Denton GH, Lowell TV, Heusser CJ, Schlüchter C, Andersen BG, Heusser LE, Moreno PI, Marchant DR (1999) Geomorphology, stratigraphy, and radiocarbon chronology of Llanquihue drift in the area of the Southern Lake District, Seno Reloncaví, and Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile. Geogr Ann A 81:167–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diaz MM, Pedrozo FL, Temporetti PF (1998) Phytoplankton of two Araucanian lakes of differing trophic status (Argentina). Hydrobiologia 369–370:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Douglass DC, Singer BS, Kaplan MR, Ackert RP, Mickelson DM, Caffee MW (2005) Evidence of early Holocene glacial advances in southern South America from cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. Geology 33:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fogwill CJ, Kubik PW (2005) A glacial stage spanning the Antarctic Cold Reversal in Torres del Paine (51°S), Chile, based on preliminary cosmogenic exposure ages. Geogr Ann A 87:403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frenguelli J (1942) Diatomeas del Neuquen (Patagonia). Rev Museo Plata Sección Bot 5:73-219Google Scholar
  28. Gagan MK, Hendy EJ, Haberle SG, Hantoro WS (2004) Post-glacial evolution of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Quat Int 118–119:127–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilli A, Ariztegui D, Anselmetti FS, McKenzie JA, Markgraf V, Hajdas I, McCulloch RD (2005) Mid-Holocene strengthening of the Southern Westerlies in South America – Sedimentological evidences from Lago Cardiel, Argentina (49°S). Global Planet Change 49:75–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grimm EC (1987) CONISS, a FORTRAN-77 program for stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis by the method of incremental sum of squares. Comput Geosci UK 13:13–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grimm EC (1991) Tilia version 2.0b4. Springfield, Illinois State Museum, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  32. Grimm EG (2001) TGView version Springfield, Illinois State Museum, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  33. Haberle SG, Bennett KD (2004) Postglacial formation and dynamics of North Patagonian Rainforest in the Chonos Archipelago, Southern Chile. Quat Sci Rev 23:2433–2452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haberzettl T, Fey M, Luecke A, Maidana N, Mayr C, Ohlendorf C, Schaebitz F, Schleser GH, Wille M, Zolitschka B (2005) Climatically induced lake level changes during the last two millennia as reflected in sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia (Santa Cruz, Argentina). J Paleolimnol 33:283–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hajdas I, Bonani G, Moreno PI, Ariztegui D (2003) Precise radiocarbon dating of Late-Glacial cooling in mid-latitude South America. Quat Res 59:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Håkansson H (2002) A compilation and evaluation of species in the genera Stephanodiscus, Cyclostephanos and Cyclotella with a new genus in the family Stephanodiscaceae. Diatom Res 17:1–139Google Scholar
  37. Haug GH, Hughen KA, Sigman DM, Peterson LC, Röhl U (2001) Southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone through the Holocene. Science 293:1304–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heiri O, Lotter AF, Lemcke G (2001) Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproductibility and comparability of results. J Paleolimnol 25:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hendy CH, Sadler AJ, Denton GH, Hall BL (2000) Proglacial lake-ice conveyors: a new mechanism for deposition of drift in polar environments. Geogr Ann A 82:249–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heusser CJ, Denton GH, Hauser A, Andersen BG, Lowell TV (1995) Quaternary pollen records from the archipelago de Chiloe in the context of glaciation and climate. Rev Geol Chile 22:25–46Google Scholar
  41. Hubbard AL (1997) Modelling climate, topography and palaeoglacier fluctuations in the Chilean Andes. Earth Surf Proc Land 22:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hulton NRJ, Purves RS, McCulloch RD, Sudgen DE, Bentley MJ (2002) The Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in southern South America. Quat Sci Rev 21:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jenny B, Valero-Garcés BL, Villa-Martínez R, Urrutia R, Geyh M, Veit H (2002) Early to Mid-Holocene Aridity in Central Chile and the Southern Westerlies: The Laguna Aculeo Record (34°S). Quat Res 58:160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenny B, Wilhelm D, Valero-Garcés BL (2003) The Southern Westerlies in Central Chile: Holocene precipitation estimates based on a water balance model for Laguna Aculeo (33°50′S). Clim Dynam 20:269–280Google Scholar
  45. Jorgetti T, Silva Dias PL, Braconnot P (2006) Review of: El Niño over South America during the mid-Holocene. Adv Geosci 6:279–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jouzel J, Masson V, Cattani O, Falourd S, Stievenard M, Stenni B, Longinelli A, Johnsen SJ, Steffensen JP, Petit J-R, Schwander J, Souchez R, Barkov NI (2001) A new 27 ky high resolution East Antarctic climate record. Geophys Res Lett 28:3199–3202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keefer DK, Moseley ME, deFrance SD (2003) A 38000-year record of floods and debris flows in the Ilo region of southern Peru and its relation to El Niño events and great earthquakes. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 194:41–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kilham P, Kilham SS, Hecky RE (1986) Hypothesized resource relationships among African planktonic diatoms. Limnol Oceanogr 31:1169–1181Google Scholar
  49. Knorr G, Lohman G (2003) Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation. Nature 424:532–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kull C, Hanni F, Grosjean M, Veit H (2003) Evidence of an LGM cooling in NW-Argentina (22 degrees S) derived from a glacier climate model. Quat Int 108:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lamy F, Hebbeln D, Wefer G (1999) High-resolution marine record of climatic change in mid-latitude Chile during the last 28,000 years based on terrigenous sediment parameters. Quat Res 51:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lamy F, Hebbeln D, Röhl U, Wefer G (2001) Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 185:369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lamy F, Kaiser J, Ninnemann U, Hebbeln D, Arz HW, Stoner J (2004) Antarctic timing of surface water changes off Chile and Patagonian Ice Sheet response. Science 304:1959–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Langohr R (1971) The volcanic ash soils of the Central valley of Central Chile I. Deposition and origin of the parent materials of the Trumao soils within the Itata River basin. Pédologie 11:259–293Google Scholar
  55. Langohr R (1974) The volcanic ash soils of the Central valley of central Chile II. The parent materials of the Trumao and Nadi soils of the Lake District in relation with the geomorphology and quaternary geology. Pédologie 14:238–255Google Scholar
  56. Laugénie C (1982) La région des lacs, Chili Méridional, recherches sur l′évolution géomorphologique d’un piémont glaciaire quaternaire andin. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Bordeaux III, France, 822 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Lowell TV, Heusser CJ, Andersen BG, Moreno PI, Hauser A, Heusser LE, Schluchter C, Marchant DR, Denton GH (1995) Interhemispheric correlation of late Pleistocene glacial events. Science 269:1541–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McCulloch RD, Davies SJ (2001) Late-glacial and Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the central Strait of Magellan, southern Patagonia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 173:143–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McCulloch RD, Bentley MJ, Purves RS, Hulton NRJ, Sudgen DE, Clapperton CM (2000) Climatic inferences from glacial and palaeoecological evidence at the last glacial termination, southern South America. J Quat Sci 15:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Montecinos A, Aceituno P (2003) Seasonality of the ENSO-related rainfall variability in central Chile and associated circulation anomalies. J Climate 16:281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Montecinos A, Diaz A, Aceituno P (2000) Seasonal diagnostic and predictability of rainfall in subtropical South America based on tropical Pacific SST. J Climate 13:746–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moreno PI (2004) Millennial-scale climate variability in Northwest Patagonia over the last 15 000 yr. J Quat Sci 19:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moreno PI, Léon AL (2003) Abrupt vegetation changes during the last glacial to Holocene transition in mid-latitude South America. J Quat Sci 18:787–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moreno PI, Lowell TV, Jacobson GL, Denton GH (1999) Abrupt vegetation and climate changes during the last glacial maximum and last termination in the Chilean Lake District: a case study from Canal de la Puntilla (41°S). Geogr Ann A 81:285–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moreno PI, Jacobson GL, Lowell TV, Denton GM (2001) Interhemispheric climate links revealed by a late-glacial cooling episode in southern Chile. Nature 409:804–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moy CM, Seltzer GO, Rodbell DT, Anderson DM (2002) Variability of El Niño/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch. Nature 420:162–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patrick R, Reimer CW (1966) The diatoms of the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, vol 1. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 688 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Renwick JA (1998) ENSO-related variability in the frequency of South Pacific Blocking. Mon Weather Rev 126:3117–3123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Renwick JA, Revell MJ (1999) Blocking over the South Pacific and Rossby Wave Propagation. Mon Weather Rev 127:2233–2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reynolds CS (1973) The seasonal periodicity of planktonic diatoms in a shallow eutrophic lake. Freshw Biol 3:89–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reynolds CS (1984) The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 384 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Reynolds CS (1997) Vegetation processes in the pelagic: a model for ecosystem theory. In: Kinne O (ed) Excellence in ecology 9. Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/Luhe, 371 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. Ribbe J (2004) The southern supplier. Nature 427:23–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rodbell DT (2000) The Younger Dryas: cold, cold everywhere? Science 290:285–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rodbell DT, Seltzer GO (2000) Rapid ice margin fluctuations during the Younger Dryas in the tropical Andes. Quat Res 54:328–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rodbell DT, Seltzer GO, Anderson DM, Abbott MB, Enfield DB, Newman JH (1999) An ∼15,000-year record of El Niño-driven alluviation in southwestern Ecuador. Science 283:516–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Round FE, Bukhtiyarova L (1996) Four new genera based on Achnanthes (Achnanthidium) together with a re-definition of Achnanthidium. Diatom Res 11:345–361Google Scholar
  78. Round FE, Crawford RM, Mann DG (1990) The diatoms: biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 747 ppGoogle Scholar
  79. Rühland KM, Smol JP, Pienitz R (2003) Ecology and spatial distributions of surface-sediment diatoms from 77 lakes in the subarctic Canadian treeline region. Can J Bot 81:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rumrich U, Lange-Bertalot H, Rumrich M (2000) Diatoms of the Andes, from Venezuela to Patagonia/Tierra del Fuego, and two additional contributions. ARG Gartner Verlag KG, Koningstein, 673 ppGoogle Scholar
  81. Sandweiss DH, Richardson JB, Reitz EJ, Rollins HB, Maasch KA (1996) Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5000 years BP onset of El Niño. Science 273:1531–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santisteban JI, Mediavilla R, López-Pamo E, Dabrio CJ, Blanca Ruiz Zapata M, José Gil Garcia M, Castaño S, Martínez-Alfaro PE (2004) Loss on ignition: a qualitative or quantitative method for organic matter and carbonate mineral content in sediments? J Paleolimnol 32:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sarmiento JL, Gruber N, Brzezinski MA, Dunne JP (2004) High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity. Nature 427:56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schick M (1980) Flora del parque nacional Puyehue. Universitaria, Santiago, 557 ppGoogle Scholar
  85. Schmidt R, Kamenik C, Lange-Bertalot H, Klee R (2004) Fragilaria and Staurosira (Bacillariophyceae) from sediment surfaces of 40 lakes in the Austrian Alps in relation to environmental variables, and their potential for palaeoclimatology. J Limnol 63(2):171–189Google Scholar
  86. Shulmeister J, Goodwin I, Renwick J, Harle K, Armand L, McGlone MS, Cook E, Dodson J, Hesse PP, Mayewski P, Curran M (2004) The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in the Australasian sector over the last glacial cycle: a synthesis. Quat Int 118–119:23–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shulmeister J, Rodbell DT, Gagan MK, Seltzer GO (2006) Inter-hemispheric linkages in climate change: paleo-perspectives for future climate change. Clim Past Discuss 2:79–122Google Scholar
  88. Singer C, Shulmeister J, McLea B (1998) Evidence against a significant Younger Dryas cooling event in New Zealand. Science 281:812–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith JA, Hodgson DA, Bentley MJ, Verleyen E, Leng MJ, Roberts SJ (2006) Limnology of two Antarctic epishelf lakes and their potential to record periods of ice shelf loss. J Paleolimnol 35:373–394Google Scholar
  90. Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last WM (eds) (2001) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments, vol 3: terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 371 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. Stuiver M, Grootes PM, Braziunas TF (1995) The GISP2 δ18O climate record of the past 16,500 years and the role of the sun, ocean, and volcanoes. Quat Res 44:341–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sugden DE, Bentley MJ, Fogwill CJ, Hulton NRJ, McCulloch RD, Purves RS (2005) Late-glacial glacier events in southernmost South America: a blend of ‘northern’ and ‘southern’ hemispheric climatic signals? Geogr Ann A 87A:273–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. ter Braak CJF, Prentice IC (1988) A theory of gradient analysis. Adv Ecol Res 18:271–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P (1997–2002) CANOCO for Windows 4.5. Biometris – Plant Research International, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  95. Thomasson K (1963) Araucanian Lakes, plankton studies in North Patagonia with notes on terrestrial vegetation. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri A.B., Uppsala, 139 ppGoogle Scholar
  96. Thompson LG, Davis ME, Mosley-Thompson E, Sowers TA, Henderson KA, Zagorodnov VS, Lin PN, Mikhalenko VN, Campen RL, Bolzan JF, Cole-Dai J, Francou B (1998) A 25,000-year tropical climate history from Bolivian ice cores. Science 282:1858–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Turney CSM, Kershaw AP, Clemens SC, Branch N, Moss PT, Fifield LK (2004) Millennial and orbital variations of El Niño/Southern Oscillation and high-latitude climate in the last glacial period. Nature 428:306–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vargas L, Roche E, Gerrienne P, Hooghiemstra H (2007) A pollen-based record of Lateglacial-Holocene climatic variability in the southern lake district, Chile. J Paleolimnol  doi:10.1007/s10933-007-9115-0 (this issue)
  99. White WB, Chen SC, Allan RJ, Stone RC (2002) Positive feedbacks between the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave and the global El Nino-Southern Oscillation Wave. J Geophys Res – Oceans 107:1–17Google Scholar
  100. Williams PW, King DNT, Zhao J-X, Collerson KD (2005) Late Pleistocene to Holocene composite speleothem 18O and 13C chronologies from South Island, New Zealand – did a global Younger Dryas really exist? Earth Planet Sci Lett 230:301–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mieke Sterken
    • 1
  • Elie Verleyen
    • 1
  • Koen Sabbe
    • 1
  • Griet Terryn
    • 1
  • Francois Charlet
    • 2
  • Sébastien Bertrand
    • 3
  • Xavier Boës
    • 3
  • Nathalie Fagel
    • 3
  • Marc De Batist
    • 2
  • Wim Vyverman
    • 1
  1. 1.Section Protistology & Aquatic Ecology, Department of BiologyUniversiteit GentGentBelgium
  2. 2.Renard Centre of Marine GeologyUniversiteit GentGentBelgium
  3. 3.Clays and Paleoclimate Research UnitUniversity of LiègeLiegeBelgium

Personalised recommendations