Diatom evidence for autochthonous artifact deposition in the Valsequillo region, Puebla, Mexico during the Sangamonian (sensu lato = 80,000 to ca. 220,000 yr BP and Illinoian (220,000 to 430,000 yr BP))

  • Sam L. VanLandinghamEmail author
Original Paper


Fossil diatoms in the Valsequillo area are important in supplying adequate paleoecological evidence for the in situ deposition (in the absence of strong water currents necessary for the displacement and redeposition) of artifacts as large as those at the Hueyatlaco Archaeological Site. The paleoecology of lacustrine diatom-bearing samples from four nearby localities in the Valsequillo region all correlated with numerous diatomaceous samples from the Hueyatlaco Site (Puebla, Mexico) and indicate an autochthonous deposition of the artifacts at that site. This correlative evidence is consistent with a deposition in Sangamonian to Illinoian time and is based on the relationships of percentages of taxa in categories of the current, pH, and halobian spectra in six lines of correlation of samples between the Hueyatlaco Site and the four localities.


Paleoecology Redeposition Diatoms Archaeology Mexico 


  1. Brander, G 1935Bålen-See-Studien des Geologischen Instituts der Stockholms Hoegskola. 2. Die baltische Diatomeen-Succession des Balen-BeckensGeol Foeren Foerhandl (Stockholm)57318340Google Scholar
  2. Bryant VM (1992) In Search of the First Americans. In:1993 Yearbook of Science and the Future. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, pp 8–27Google Scholar
  3. Bunde, H 1973Geologische Untersuchungen im Gebiet des Valsequillo südlich von Puebla, MexicoLauer, W eds. Das Mexiko-Projekt der deutschen ForschungsgemeinschaftFranz Steiner Verlag GMBHWiesbaden2298Google Scholar
  4. Chlachula, J, Leslie, L 1998Preglacial archaeological evidence at Grimshaw, the Peace River area, AlbertaCan J Earth Sci35871874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cornwall, IW 1971Geology and Early Man in Central MexicoProc Geol Assoc82379391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crabtree, K, Round, FE 1967Analysis of a Core from Slapton LeyNew Phytol66255270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehrlich, A 1973Quaternary diatoms of the Hula Basin (Northern Israel)Geol Surv Israel Bull58139Google Scholar
  8. Fjerdingstad, E 1954The subfossil algal flora of the lake Bølling Sø and its limnological interpretationKongel Dan Vidensk Selsk Biol Skrift7156Google Scholar
  9. Foged, N 1948Diatoms in water-courses in Funen. IV–VIDan Botan Arkiv121110Google Scholar
  10. Foged, N 1954On the diatom flora of some Funen lakesFol Limnol Scand6176Google Scholar
  11. Foged, N 1959Diatoms from AfghanistanKongel Dan Viden sk Seisk Biol Skrift11195Google Scholar
  12. Gasse, F 1974Les Diatomées des Sediments Holocénes du Basin du Lac Afrera (Giulietti) (Afar Septentrional, Ethiopie)Intern Rev Hydrobiol5995122Google Scholar
  13. Haworth, EY 1976Two late-glacial (Late Devensian) diatom assemblage profiles from northern ScotlandNew Phytol77227256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heinonen, L 1957Studies on the microfossils in the tills of the North European glaciationAnn Acad Sci Fenn (Ser. A, III, Geol.-Geogr.)52192Google Scholar
  15. Herbst, N, Maidana, NI 1989Diatoms of Chaco (República Argentina):1Nova Hedwigia49207232Google Scholar
  16. Huckleberry, G, Beck, C, Jones, GT, Holmes, A, Cannon, M, Livingston, S, Broughton, JM 2001Terminal pleistocene/early holocene environmental change at the sunshine locality, North-Central Nevada, U.S.A.Quat Res55303312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hustedt, F 1957Die Diatomeenflora des Flussystems der Weser in Gebiet der Hansestadt BremenAbhandl naturwissens Ver Bremen34181440Google Scholar
  18. Irwin-Williams C (1967a) Comments on allegations by J. L. Lorenzo concerning archaeological research at Valsequillo, Puebla. Paleoindian Institution, Eastern New Mexico University Miscellaneous Publications, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  19. Irwin-Williams, C 1967bAssociations of early man with horse, camel, and mastodon at Hueyatlaco, Valsequillo (Puebla, Mexico)Martin, PŞWright, HE,Jr eds. Pleistocene extinctions: search for a causeYale University PressNew Haven337347Google Scholar
  20. Irwin-Williams, C 1969Comments on the associations of archaeological materials and extinct fauna in the Valsequillo Region, Puebla, MexicoAm Antiquity3482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Irwin-Williams C (1973) Summary of archaeological evidence from the Valsequillo Region, Puebla, Mexico. 9th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, August–September, 1973, Chicago, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  22. Israde-Alcantara, I, Garduño-Monroy, VH 1999Lacustrine record in a volcanic infra-arc setting: the evolution of the Late Neogene Cuitzeo basin system (Central-western Mexico, Michoacán)Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol151209227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lagerback, R, Robertsson, A-M 1988Kettle holes—stratigraphic archives for Weichselian geology and palaeoenvironment in northernmost SwedenBoreas17429468Google Scholar
  24. Loseva E (2001) Plio-Pleistocene diatom flora of northeastern Europe. Proceedings of the 16th International Diatom Symposium, 25 August–1 September, 2000, University of Athens, Greece, pp 461–470Google Scholar
  25. Lowe RL (1974) Environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of freshwater diatoms. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Publication 070/4-74-005, 1–334Google Scholar
  26. Matsuoka, I, Akutsu, J, Manabe, K, Takeuti, S 1984Quaternary deposits of the Yamagata Basin, Northeast Honshu, JapanJ Geol Soc Jpn90531549[In Japanese with English abstract]Google Scholar
  27. Metcalfe S, Hales P (1990) Holocene diatoms from a Mexican crater lake—La Piscina de Yuriria. Proceedings of the 11th International Diatom Symposium, San Francisco, California, pp 501–515Google Scholar
  28. Mölder, K 1945Ein nachwaermezeitlicher Gletschervorstoss in Oberfernau in den Stubaier Alpen im Lichte der fossilen DiatomeenfundeAc Geogr9123Google Scholar
  29. Mori, Y 1999Fossil diatom assemblages from pre-historical and historical deposits and their paleoenvironmental applicationsDiatom15127147Google Scholar
  30. Pichardo, M 1997Valsequillo biostratigraphy: new evidence for pre-Clovis dateAnthropol Anzeiger55233246Google Scholar
  31. Przybyłowska-Lange, W 1981Diatoms of lake deposits from the Polish Baltic Coast. 3. Lake SarbskoAc Palaeobot21145160Google Scholar
  32. Rymer, MJ, Roth, B, Bradbury, JP, Forester, RM 1988Depositional environments of the Cache, Lower Lake, and Kelseyville formations, Lake County, CaliforniaGeol Soc Amer Special Paper2144561Google Scholar
  33. Schauderna, H 1983Die Diatomeenflora aus den miozänen Seeablagerungen im Nördlinger RiesPalaeontographica (Abt. B)18883193Google Scholar
  34. Servant-Vildary, S 1982Altitudinal zonation of mountainous diatom flora in Bolivia: application to the study of the QuaternaryAc Geo Acad Sci Hung25179210Google Scholar
  35. Shirshov, PP 1933Sravnitel’nyi Ocherk Tsenozov Reofil’nikh Vodoroslei r. Tulomy Nekotorykh Drugikh VodoemovAc Inst Bot Acad Sci U.S.S.R., Ser. 2 (Plantae Cryptogamae)16591[russisch mit deutscher Zusammenfassung]Google Scholar
  36. Steen-McIntyre, V 1985Tephrochronology and its application to archaeologyRapp, GGifford, JA eds. Archaeological geologyYale University PressNew Haven265302Google Scholar
  37. Steen-McIntyre, V, Fryxell, R, Malde, HE 1981Geological evidence for age of deposits at Hueyatlaco archeological site, Valsequillo, MexicoQuat Res16117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Szabo, BJ, Malde, HE, Irwin-Williams, C 1969Dilemma posed by Uranium-series dates on archaeologically significant bones from Valsequillo, Puebla, MexicoEarth Plan Sci Lett6237244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Toumazou, MK, Kardulias, PN, Yerkes, RW 1992Excavation and survey in Malloura Valley, Central Cyprus: the 1991 seasonOld World Archaeol Newslett151823Google Scholar
  40. VanLandingham SL (2000) Sangamonian Interglacial (Middle Pleistocene) environments of deposition of artifacts at the Valsequillo archeological site, Puebla, Mexico. Transactions 35th Regional Archeological Symposium for Southern New Mexico and Western Texas—Southwest Federation of Archeological Societies Annual Meeting, April 9–11, 1999, Midland, Texas, pp 81–98Google Scholar
  41. VanLandingham SL (2002) Corroboration of Sangamonian Interglacial age artifacts at the Valsequillo archeological area, Puebla, Mexico, by means of paleoecology and biostratigraphy of Chrysophyta cysts. Transactions of the 37th Regional Archeological Symposium for Southern New Mexico and West Texas—Southwestern Federation of Archeological Societies Annual Meeting, April 6–7, 2001, Iraan, Texas, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  42. VanLandingham, SL 2004Corroboration of Sangamonian age of artifacts from the Valsequillo region, Puebla, Mexico by means of diatom biostratigraphyMicropaleontology50313342Google Scholar
  43. Wyckoff, DG, Theler, JL, Carter, BJ 2004The Burnham site in Northwestern Oklahoma: glimpses beyond clovis?Okla Anthropol Soc Mem91315Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sam L. VanLandinghamMidlandUSA

Personalised recommendations