Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 191–202

Late Holocene changes in ultraviolet radiation penetration recorded in an East Antarctic lake

  • Elie Verleyen
  • Dominic A. Hodgson
  • Koen Sabbe
  • Wim Vyverman
Article

Abstract

Late Holocene changes in the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) penetration in a lake in the Larsemann Hills (East Antarctica) were reconstructed using sediment core proxies based on fossil pigments (scytonemins and its derivatives) and siliceous microfossils. The influence of changes in lake depth on the UVR proxy was excluded by applying a correction, based on the non-linear relation between modern scytonemin concentrations and lake depth in a regional reference data set, and the record of past lake depths inferred using a diatom based transfer function in the sediment core. Results showed four well-defined maxima in the UVR proxy during the last 1600–1800 years, centred around 1820–1780, 1580–1490, 790–580 and 680–440 AD. Several mechanisms may account for these observed changes in UVR penetration, including past variability in cloud cover, atmospheric turbidity, ozone column depth, snow cover on the lake ice, DOM concentrations and lake-ice thickness and transparency resulting from temperature fluctuations. Although some gaps remain in our knowledge of scytonemin production in relation to the limnology of Antarctic lakes, the results highlight the importance and potential of the sediments in these highly transparent water bodies as archives of changes in past UVR receipt at the Earth’s surface.

Keywords

Antarctica Diatoms Larsemann Hills Pigments Scytonemin Ultraviolet radiation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Airs, R.L., Atkinson, J.E., Keely, B.J. 2001Development and application of a high-resolution liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of complex pigment distributionsJ. Chromatogr. A917167177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arrigo K.R., Lubin D., van Dijken G.L., Holm-Hansen O. and Morrow E. 2003. Impact of a deep ozone hole on Southern Ocean primary production. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5): Art. No. 3154.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bard, E., Raisbeck, G.M., Yiou, F., Jouzel, J. 1997Solar modulation of cosmogenic nuclide production over the last millennium: comparison between C-14 and Be-10 recordsEarth Planet. Sci. Lett.150453462Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Battarbee, R.W., Kneen, M.J. 1982The use of electronically counted microspheres in absolute diatom analysisLimnol. Oceanogr.27184188Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blumthaler, M., Webb, A.R. 2003

    UVR climatology

    Helbling, E.W.Zagarese, H. eds. UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems. Comprehensive Series in PhotosciencesThe Royal Society of ChemistryCambridge2158
    Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I., Bonani, G. 2001Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the HoloceneScience29421302136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brenowitz, S., Castenholz, R.W. 1997Long-term effects of UV and visible irradiance on natural populations of a scytonemin-containing cyanobacterium (Calothrix sp.)FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.24343352Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Camuffo, D., Secco, C., Brimblecombe, P., Martin-Vide, J. 2000Sea storms in the Adriatic Sea and the Western Mediterranean during the last millenniumClimatic Change46209223Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Castenholz, R.W., Garcia-Pichel, F. 2000

    Cyanobacterial responses to UV-radiation

    Whitton, B.A.Potts, M. eds. The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and SpaceKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht591611
    Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dillon, J.G., Tatsumi, C.M., Tandingan, P.G., Castenholz, R.W. 2002Effect of environmental factors on the synthesis of scytonemin, a UV-screening pigment in a cyanobacterium (Chroococcidiopsis sp.)Arch. Mikrobiol.177322331Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ehling-Schulz, M., Bilger, W., Scherer, S. 1997UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc communeJ. Bacteriol.17919401945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ellis-Evans, J.C., Laybourn-Parry, J., Bayliss, P.R., Perriss, S.J. 1998Physical, chemical and microbial community characteristics of lakes of the Larsermann Hills, continental AntarcticaArch. Hydrobiol.141209230Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farman, J.C., Gardiner, B.G., Shanklin, J.D. 1985Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interactionNature315207210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garcia-Pichel, F., Sherry, N.D., Castenholz, R.W. 1993Evidence for an ultraviolet sunscreen role of the extracellular pigment scytonemin in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis spPhotochem. Photobiol.561723Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gillett, N.P., Thompson, D.W.J. 2003Simulation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate changeScience302273275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Glew, J.R. 1991Miniature gravity corer for recovering short sediment coresJ. Paleolimnol.5285287Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haigh, J.D. 2003The effects of solar variability on the Earth’s climatePhilos. Trans. R. Soc. A36195111Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hartmann, D.L, Wallace, J.M., Limpasuvan, V., Thompson, D.W.J, Holton, J.R. 2000Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA9714121417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hodgson, D.A., Wright, S.W., Davies, N. 1997Mass spectrometry and reverse phase HPLC techniques for the identification of degraded fossil pigments in lake sediments and their application in palaeolimnologyJ. Paleolimnol.18335350Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hodgson, D.A., Wright, S.W., Tyler, P.A., Davies, N. 1998Analysis of fossil pigments from algae and bacteria in meromictic Lake FidlerTasmaniaand its application to lake managementJ. Paleolimnol.19122Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hodgson, D.A, Noon, P.E., Vyverman, W., Bryant, C.L., Gore, D.B., Appleby, P., Gilmour, M., Verleyen, E., Sabbe, K., Jones, V.J., Ellis-Evans, J.C., Wood, P.B. 2001Were the Larsemann Hills ice-free through the Last Glacial Maximum?Antarct. Sci.13440454Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hodgson, D.A., Vyverman, W., Verleyen, E., Sabbe, K., Leavitt, P.R., Taton, A., Squier, A.H., Keely, B.J. 2004Environmental factors influencing the pigment composition of in situ benthic microbial communities in east Antarctic lakesAquat. Microb. Ecol.37247263Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holt, N.E., Zigmantas, D., Valkunas, L., Li, X.P., Niyogi, K.K., Fleming, G.R. 2005Carotenoid cation formation and the regulation of photosynthetic light harvestingScience307433436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jeffrey, S.W., Mantoura, R.F.C., Bjørnland, T. 1997

    Data for the identification of 47 key phytoplankton pigments

    Jeffrey, S.W.Mantoura, R.F.C.Wright, S.W. eds. Phytoplankton Pigments in Oceanography, Guidelines to Modern MethodsUNESCOParis449559
    Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Juggins S. and ter Braak C.J.F. 1997–2001. Calibrate version 1.01, a C++ program for analysing and visualising species environment relationships and for predicting environmental values from species assemblages.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kirschtel D.B. 1996. BIOVOL Ver. 2.1. Available at: http://www.msu.edu/∼ ∼kirschte/biovol/index.html (accessed on 21/10/2004). Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Laybourn-Parry, J., Henshaw, T., Jones, D.J., Quayle, W. 2004Bacterioplankton production in freshwater Antarctic lakesFreshwater Biol.49735744Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leavitt, P.R, Findlay, D.L. 1994Comparison of fossil pigments with 20 years of phytoplankton data from eutrophic Lake 227, Experimental Lakes AreaOntarioCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5122862299Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leavitt, P.R., Hodgson, D.A. 2001

    Practical methods for analysis of sedimentary pigments

    Smol, J.P.Birks, H.J.B.Last, W.M. eds. Developments in Palaeoenvironmental ResearchTracking Environmental Changes Using Lake Sediments, Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators, Vol. 3Kluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht295325
    Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leavitt, P.R., Vinebrooke, R.D., Donald, D.B., Smol, J.P., Schindler, D.W. 1997Past ultraviolet radiation environments in lakes derived from fossil pigmentsNature388457459Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leavitt P.R., Hodgson D.A. and Pienitz R. 2002. Past UV radiation environments and impacts on lakes. In: Helbling E.W. and Zagarese H. (eds), UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems. Comprehensive Series in Photosciences, Vol. 2. The Royal Society of Chemistry, pp.509–545. Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Leavitt, P.R., Cumming, B.F., Smol, J.P., Reasoner, M., Pienitz, R., Hodgson, D.A. 2003Climatic control of ultraviolet radiation effects on lakesLimnol. Oceanogr.4820622069Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Masson, V., Vimeux, F., Jouzel, J., Morgan, V., Delmotte, M., Ciais, P., Hammer, C., Johnsen, S., Lipenkov, V.Y., Mosley-Thompson, E., Petit, J.R., Steig, E.J., Stievenard, M., Vaikmae, R. 2000Holocene climate variability in Antarctica based on 11 ice-core isotopic recordsQuaternary Res.54348358Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McKay, C.P., Clow, G.D., Andersen, D.T., Wharton, R.A. 1994Light transmission and reflection in perennially ice-covered Lake HoareAntarcticaJ. Geophys. Res.992042720444Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Newsham, K.K., Hodgson, D.A., Murray, A.W.A., Peat, H.J., Smith, R.I.L. 2002Response of two Antarctic bryophytes to stratospheric ozone depletionGlob. Change Biol.8972983Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nichol, S.E., Pfister, G., Bodeker, G.E., McKenzie, R.L., Wood, S.W., Bernhard, G. 2003Moderation of cloud reduction of UV in the Antarctic due to high surface albedoJ. Appl. Meteorol.4211741183Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pang, K.D., Yau, K.K. 2002Ancient observations link changes in Sun’s brightness and Earth’s climateEOS83481490Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pienitz, R., Vincent, W.F. 2000Effect of climate change relative to ozone depletion on UV exposure in subarctic lakesNature404484487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Proteau, P.J., Gerwick, W.H., Garcia-Pichel, F., Castenholz, R. 1993The structure of scytonemin, an ultraviolet sunscreen pigment form the sheaths of cyanobacteriaExperientia49825829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Renberg, I. 1990A procedure for preparing large sets of diatom slides from sediment coresJ. Paleolimnol.48790Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reid, G.C. 1999Solar variability and its implications for the human environmentJ. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phy.61314Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roberts, D., McMinn, A. 1999Diatoms of the saline lakes of the Vestfold Hills, AntarcticaBibliotheca Diatomologica4483Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Robinson, S.A., Wasley, J., Tobin, A.K. 2003Living on the edge – plants and global change in continental and maritime AntarcticaGlob. Change Biol.916811717Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rozema, J., Broekman, R.A., Blokker, P., Meijkamp, B.B., de Bakker, N., de Staaij, J., van Beem, A., Ariese, F., Kars, S.M. 2001UV-B absorbance and UV-B absorbing compounds (para-coumaric acid) in pollen and sporopollenin: the perspective to track historic UV-B levelsJ. Photoch. Photobio. B62108117Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rozema, J., van Geel, B., Björn, L.O., Lean, J., Madronich, S. 2002Paleoclimate: toward solving the UV puzzleScience29616211622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sabbe, K., Verleyen, E., Hodgson, D.A., Vanhoutte, K., Vyverman, W. 2003Benthic diatom flora of freshwater and saline lakes in the Larsemann Hills and Rauer Islands (E-Antarctica)Antarct. Sci.15227248Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sabbe, K., Hodgson, D.A., Verleyen, E., Taton, A., Wilmotte, A., Vanhoutte, K., Vyverman, W. 2004Effects of physical disturbance and salinity on microbial mat structure and composition in continental Antarctic lakes (Larsemann Hills and Bølingen Islands)Freshwater Biol.49296319Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schindler, D.W. 1998A dim future for boreal waters and landscapesBioscience48157164Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schindler, D.W. 2001The cumulative effects of climate warming and other human stresses on Canadian freshwaters in the new millenniumCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.581829Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schoeberl, M.R, Hartmann, D.L. 1991The dynamics of the stratospheric polar vortex and its relation to springtime ozone depletionScience2514652Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shindell D.T. and Schmidt G.A. 2004. Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases. Geoph. Res. Lett. 31, L18209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020724.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sinha, R.P., Klisch, M., Gröniger, A., Häder, D.P. 2001Responses of aquatic algae and cyanobacteria to solar UV-BPlant Ecol.154221236Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Staehelin, J., Harris, N.R.P., Appenzeller, C., Eberhard, J. 2001Ozone trends: a reviewRev. Geophys.39231290Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Beck, J.W., Burr, G.S., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., der Plicht, J., Spurk, M. 1998INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24,000–0 cal BPRadiocarbon4010411083Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stuiver M. and Reimer P.J. 2000. CALIB 4.3 radiocarbon calibration program.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    van Geel, B., Raspopov, O.M., Renssen, H., van der Plicht, J., Dergachev, V.A., Meijer, H.A.J. 1999The role of solar forcing upon climate changeQuaternary Sci. Rev.18331338Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Verleyen, E., Hodgson, D.A., Vyverman, W., Roberts, D., McMinn, A., Vanhoutte, K., Sabbe, K. 2003Modelling diatom responses to climate induced fluctuations in the moisture balance in continental Antarctic lakesJ. Paleolimnol.30195215Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Verleyen, E., Hodgson, D.A., Sabbe, K., Vanhoutte, K., Vyverman, W. 2004aCoastal oceanographic conditions in the Prydz Bay region (East Antarctica) during the Holocene recorded in an isolation basinHolocene14246257Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Verleyen, E., Hodgson, D.A., Leavitt, P.R., Sabbe, K., Vyverman, W. 2004bQuantifying habitat-specific diatom production: A critical assessment using morphological and biochemical markers in Antarctic lake sedimentsLimnol. Oceanogr.4915281539Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vincent, W.F., Mueller, D.R., Bonilla, S. 2004Ecosystems on ice: the microbial ecology of Markham Ice Shelf in the high ArcticCryobiology48103112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    WMO (World Meteorological Organization) 2002. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Report No. 47. Genevapp. 498.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wright, H.E. 1967A square drive piston sampler for lake sedimentsJ. Sediment. Petrol.37975976Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W., Mantoura, R.F.C., Llewellyn, C.A., Bjørnland, T., Repeta, D., Welschmeyer, N.A. 1991Improved HPLC method for analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplanktonMar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser.77183196Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zepp, R.G., Callaghan, T.V., Erickson, D.J. 2003Interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on biogeochemical cyclesPhotochem. Photobiol. Sci.25161PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elie Verleyen
    • 1
  • Dominic A. Hodgson
    • 2
  • Koen Sabbe
    • 1
  • Wim Vyverman
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Protistology and Aquatic EcologyGhent UniversityGentBelgium
  2. 2.British Antarctic SurveyNatural Environment Research CouncilCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations