Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 491–505 | Cite as

Climatic Changes from 12,000 to 4,000 Years Ago in the Austrian Central Alps Tracked by Sedimentological and Biological Proxies of a Lake Sediment Core

  • Roland SchmidtEmail author
  • Christian Kamenik
  • Richard Tessadri
  • Karin Anne Koinig


Major and trace elements, minerals, and grain-size were analysed from the early to mid-Holocene (12 to 4 ky BP) period of a sediment core from the Alpine lake Oberer Landschitzsee (ObLAN, 2076 m a.s.l.), which is located on predominantly crystalline bedrock on the southern slopes of the Austrian Central Alps. Geochemistry and mineralogy were compared with diatom-inferred (Di-) ‘date of autumn mixing’ (Amix), DOC, pH, and selected indicator pollen species from the same sediment core. Principal components analysis (PCA) indicated a positive correlation between processes triggered by temperature and precipitation (e.g., lake mixing, DOC). PCA grouped indicators of physical weathering and enhanced catchment run-off (sand, quartz, feldspar), elements of weathering (e.g., Ti, Rb, Mn) under dryer conditions (clay to silt fractions), and elements that probably were related to changes in redox conditions (Cu, Fe, S, Zn). The duration and height of the snow-pack played an important role in this high-alpine environment, affecting weathering, erosion, pH, and lake stratification. Low Alnus viridis pollen abundance, together with markers for increased elements of erosion, indicated extensive snow-pack. Changes in S coupled with As, and elements indicating increased weathering, reflected climate oscillations. LOI was affected by productivity and erosion. High (late) Di–Amix coupled with increased Di-DOC indicated prolonged summers with increased productivity. Cold and wet (snow-rich) phases and subsequent melting caused low pH and a decoupling of the significant linear correlation between sedimentary Ca and Di-pH. Weathering and leaching during climate deteriorations opposed the long-term trend in a loss of cations and forced in-lake alkalinity generation during the following lake warming. Overall, the multi-proxy study indicated complex climate-driven processes within different time-scales (long-term trends, climate oscillations, seasonality). The climate oscillations within 12–5 ky BP corresponded well with the cool and wet phases known from central Europe suggesting a dominant common Atlantic climate impact. When Mediterranean climate established between 5 and 4 ky BP, its influence on the southern slopes of the Alps increased.


Alpine lake Climate change Diatom-inferred environmental variables Geochemistry Mineralogy PCA Pollen 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Schmidt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christian Kamenik
    • 2
  • Richard Tessadri
    • 3
  • Karin Anne Koinig
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of LimnologyAustrian Academy of SciencesMondseeAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Plant SciencesUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute of Mineralogy and PetrographyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  4. 4.Institute of LimnologyUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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