The Protein Journal

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 243–255 | Cite as

Recent Advances in Fungal Hydrophobin Towards Using in Industry

  • Mohammadreza KhalesiEmail author
  • Kurt Gebruers
  • Guy Derdelinckx


Fungal hydrophobin is a family of low molecular weight proteins consisting of four disulfide bridges and an extraordinary hydrophobic patch. The hydrophobic patch of hydrophobins and the molecules of gaseous CO2 may interact together and form the stable CO2-nanobubbles covered by an elastic membrane in carbonated beverages. The nanobubbles provide the required energy to provoke primary gushing. Due to the hydrophobicity of hydrophobin, this protein is used as a biosurfactant, foaming agent or encapsulating agent in food products and medicine formulations. Increasing demands for using of hydrophobins led to a challenge regarding production and purification of this product. However, the main issue to use hydrophobin in the industry is the regulatory affairs: yet there is no approved legislation for using hydrophobin in food and beverages. To comply with the legislation, establishing a consistent method for obtaining pure hydrophobins is necessary. Currently, few research teams in Europe are focusing on different aspects of hydrophobins. In this paper, an up-to-date collection of highlights from those special groups about the bio-chemical and physicochemical characteristics of hydrophobins have been studied. The recent advances of those groups concerning the production and purification, positive applications and negative function of hydrophobin are also summarised.


Hydrophobin Production Purification Legislation Application Industry 



European Union


Low molecular weight


Molecular weight

T. reesei

Trichoderma reesei

VTT Technical Research Centre

Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus



The authors would like to thank the members of Hydrophobin Chair-Belgium for all their supports.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammadreza Khalesi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kurt Gebruers
    • 1
  • Guy Derdelinckx
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S)KU LeuvenHeverleeBelgium
  2. 2.Institute of Biochemistry and BiophysicsUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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