The Protein Journal

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 392–398 | Cite as

Identification of Four Novel Rhipicephalus annulatus Upregulated Salivary Gland Proteins as Candidate Vaccines

  • Yasser E. ShaheinEmail author
  • Amira M. Abouelella
  • Nahla A. Hussein
  • Ragaa R. Hamed
  • Amr E. El-Hakim
  • Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
  • Sanaa E. Tork


The control of Rhipicephalus annulatus ticks in Egypt and other countries relies principally on the application of acaricides which have many drawbacks. Recently, cattle vaccination against ticks showed a potential unconventional approach to control ticks. As a target, salivary glands contain various proteins that may play specific roles during attachment, feeding and may modulate the immune system of the host. We have performed immunoscreening on expression normalized cDNA library to identify unique R. annulatus proteins from salivary gland (RaSal) that are particularly expressed during engorgement. We also present the cloning and sequencing of four novel cDNAs (RaSal1–4) from salivary glands that are expressed during feeding. RaSal4 shows 13 cysteine amino acid residues forming 6 potential disulfide bonds. We detected the expression level of the four genes during embryogenesis in eggs collected at 6, 12 and 18 days after oviposition. RT-PCR analysis detected these proteins at days 12 and 18 while slight amplification was detected at day 6 for only RaSal2. The expression of these salivary genes may put forward new vaccines to control tick infestations and tick-borne diseases.


Rhipicephalus annulatus Salivary glands Normalized cDNA library Tick vaccines Egg oviposition 



Capping by antibodies

GYG peptide

Glycine–Tyrosine–Glycine containing peptide


Plaque forming unit


Rhipicephalus annulatus Salivary


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasser E. Shahein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amira M. Abouelella
    • 2
  • Nahla A. Hussein
    • 1
  • Ragaa R. Hamed
    • 1
  • Amr E. El-Hakim
    • 1
  • Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
    • 3
  • Sanaa E. Tork
    • 4
  1. 1.Molecular Biology DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Radiation Biology DepartmentNational Centre for Radiation Research and TechnologyCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Parasitology and Animal Diseases DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Microbial Genetics DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt

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