Effects of Small Molecule Modulators on ATP Binding to Skeletal Ryanodine Receptor
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Calcium release for muscle contraction in skeletal muscle is mediated in part by the ryanodine receptor 1, RyR1, Ca2+-channel and is strongly affected by intrinsic modulators like Ca2+, Mg2+ and ATP. We showed differential effects on ATP binding in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions using ESR spectroscopy and a spin-labeled ATP analog, SL-ATP (Dias et al. Biochemistry 45: 9408–9415, 2006). We here report the effects of RyR1 modulators like ryanodine, caffeine and dantrolene on the ATP binding of RyR1 using the same technique. We present evidence that the exogenous effectors induce changes within RyR1 that lead to different ATP binding characteristics: In the presence of the activating modulator, caffeine, or in the presence of ryanodine, which causes a half-open state of the channel, binding of eight ATP per RyR1 was observed, even in the presence of inhibitory Ca2+, suggestive of a stable “open” channel conformation. In the presence of the inhibitory modulator dantrolene, ATP binding affinity decreased in the presence of activating Ca2+, while in the presence of inhibitory Ca2+, ATP binding affinity increased, but at the same time the number of accessible sites decreased to four, suggestive of a closed conformation of the channel. The results imply that modulation of ATP binding to RyR1 as well as the overall number of accessible ATP binding sites on the channel are crucial for regulation and are in direct correlation with the modified activity of the channel induced by pharmacological agents.
KeywordsNucleotide binding Ryanodine receptor ESR Modulators ATP sites
We thank J. Zirkel (Lipoid GmbH, Ludwigshafen, Germany) for the generous gift of 100% PC and 100% lyso-PC. We also thank J. G. Wise for discussion and critical reading of the manuscript.
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