The Protein Journal

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 533–540 | Cite as

Structural and Biological Characterization of Two Crotamine Isoforms IV-2 and IV-3 Isolated from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis Venom

  • Luis Alberto Ponce-Soto
  • Daniel Martins
  • José Camillo Novello
  • Sergio Marangoni


In this work, we isolated the two new crotamine isoforms from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis rattlesnake venom and its “in vitro” neurotoxic, myotoxic and lethality (DL50) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) effects were characterized. These proteins were named IV-2 and IV-3 and were purified by combination of two chromatographic steps on molecular exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75 and reverse phase HPLC (μ-Bondapack C18). The molecular mass of the crotamine isoforms was 4905.96 Da for isoform IV-2 and 4956.97 Da for IV-3 and, as determined by mass spectrometry, and both contained six Cys residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by de novo sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the primary structure of both isoforms. The positions of five sequenced tryptic peptides, including the N-terminal of the isoform IV-2 and four from isoform IV-3 were deduced by comparison with a homologous protein from the crotamine family. The isoforms IV-2 and IV-3 had a sequence of amino acids of 42 amino acid residues IV-2: YKRCHIKGGH CFPKEKLICI PPSSDIGKMD CPWKRKCCKK RS and pI value 9.54 and IV-3: YKQCHKKGGH CFPKEVLICI PPSSDFGKMD CRWKRKCCKK RS with a pI value of 9.54. This protein showed high molecular amino acid sequence identity with other crotamine-like proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus. These new crotamine isoforms induced potent blockade of neuromuscular transmission in young chicken biventer cervicis preparation and potent myotoxic effect. In mice, both isoforms induced myonecrosis, upon intramuscular or subcutaneous injections. These activities were modulated by the presence of positively charged amino acid residues. The LD50 of isoform IV-2 was 0.07 mg/kg and isoform IV-3 was 0.06 mg/kg the animal weight, by i.c.v. route.


Crotalus durissus cumanensis Crotamine Neurotoxin “in vitro” Myotoxin HPLC Mass spectrometry 



High performance liquid chromatograph reverse phase

IV-2 (MYX 2_CROCu) and IV-3 (MYX3_CROCu)

Isoforms of PLA2

μ-Bondapack C-18

Column HPLC with 18 carbons



MS spectral profiles

Mass spectrometric spectral profiles

LD50 i.c.v.

Lethal dose intracerebroventricular

Q-TOF Ultima, Micromass

Quadruple time-of-flight


Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry


Small basic polypeptide myotoxins


The plasma creatine kinase


Phosphate basic sodium buffer


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Alberto Ponce-Soto
    • 1
  • Daniel Martins
    • 1
  • José Camillo Novello
    • 1
  • Sergio Marangoni
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia (IB)Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) CampinasBrasil

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