Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 463–475 | Cite as

Prediction and validation of enzyme and transporter off-targets for metformin

  • Sook Wah Yee
  • Lawrence Lin
  • Matthew Merski
  • Michael J. Keiser
  • Aakash Gupta
  • Youcai Zhang
  • Huan-Chieh Chien
  • Brian K. Shoichet
  • Kathleen M. Giacomini
Original Paper

Abstract

Metformin, an established first-line treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes, has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects that limit its use. Histamine and serotonin have potent effects on the GI tract. The effects of metformin on histamine and serotonin uptake were evaluated in cell lines overexpressing several amine transporters (OCT1, OCT3 and SERT). Metformin inhibited histamine and serotonin uptake by OCT1, OCT3 and SERT in a dose-dependent manner, with OCT1-mediated amine uptake being most potently inhibited (IC50 = 1.5 mM). A chemoinformatics-based method known as Similarity Ensemble Approach predicted diamine oxidase (DAO) as an additional intestinal target of metformin, with an E-value of 7.4 × 10−5. Inhibition of DAO was experimentally validated using a spectrophotometric assay with putrescine as the substrate. The Ki of metformin for DAO was measured to be 8.6 ± 3.1 mM. In this study, we found that metformin inhibited intestinal amine transporters and DAO at concentrations that may be achieved in the intestine after therapeutic doses. Further studies are warranted to determine the relevance of these interactions to the adverse effects of metformin on the gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords

Organic cation transporter Histamine Serotonin Putrescine Diamine oxidase Metformin 

Supplementary material

10928_2015_9436_MOESM1_ESM.docx (156 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 155 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Viollet B, Guigas B, Sanz Garcia N, Leclerc J, Foretz M, Andreelli F (2012) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview. Clin Sci (Lond) 122(6):253–270. doi:10.1042/CS20110386 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Viollet B, Foretz M (2013) Revisiting the mechanisms of metformin action in the liver. Ann Endocrinol 74(2):123–129. doi:10.1016/j.ando.2013.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dandona P, Fonseca V, Mier A, Beckett AG (1983) Diarrhea and metformin in a diabetic clinic. Diabetes Care 6(5):472–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krentz AJ, Ferner RE, Bailey CJ (1994) Comparative tolerability profiles of oral antidiabetic agents. Drug Saf 11(4):223–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2012) Long-term safety, tolerability, and weight loss associated with metformin in the diabetes prevention program outcomes study. Diabetes Care 35(4):731–737. doi:10.2337/dc11-1299 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bouchoucha M, Uzzan B, Cohen R (2011) Metformin and digestive disorders. Diabetes Metab 37(2):90–96. doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2010.11.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carter D, Howlett HC, Wiernsperger NF, Bailey C (2002) Effects of metformin on bile salt transport by monolayers of human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Diabetes Obes Metab 4(6):424–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cubeddu LX, Bonisch H, Gothert M, Molderings G, Racke K, Ramadori G, Miller KJ, Schworer H (2000) Effects of metformin on intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release and on 5-HT3 receptors. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 361(1):85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Molloy AM, Ardill J, Tomkin GH (1980) The effect of metformin treatment on gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal hormone levels in normal subjects. Diabetologia 19(2):93–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bertaccini G, Coruzzi G (1995) An update on histamine H3 receptors and gastrointestinal functions. Dig Dis Sci 40(9):2052–2063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deiteren A, De Man JG, Pelckmans PA, De Winter BY (2015) Histamine H(4) receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. Br J Pharmacol 172(5):1165–1178. doi:10.1111/bph.12989 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leurs R, Brozius MM, Smit MJ, Bast A, Timmerman H (1991) Effects of histamine H1-, H2- and H3-receptor selective drugs on the mechanical activity of guinea-pig small and large intestine. Br J Pharmacol 102(1):179–185PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smolinska S, Jutel M, Crameri R, O’Mahony L (2014) Histamine and gut mucosal immune regulation. Allergy 69(3):273–281. doi:10.1111/all.12330 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maintz L, Novak N (2007) Histamine and histamine intolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 85(5):1185–1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mawe GM, Hoffman JM (2013) Serotonin signalling in the gut—functions, dysfunctions and therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10(8):473–486. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2013.105 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gershon MD (2004) Review article: serotonin receptors and transporters—roles in normal and abnormal gastrointestinal motility. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 20(Suppl 7):3–14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.02180.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gershon MD, Tack J (2007) The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders. Gastroenterology 132(1):397–414. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.11.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen JJ, Li Z, Pan H, Murphy DL, Tamir H, Koepsell H, Gershon MD (2001) Maintenance of serotonin in the intestinal mucosa and ganglia of mice that lack the high-affinity serotonin transporter: Abnormal intestinal motility and the expression of cation transporters. J Neurosci 21(16):6348–6361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beasley CM Jr, Koke SC, Nilsson ME, Gonzales JS (2000) Adverse events and treatment discontinuations in clinical trials of fluoxetine in major depressive disorder: an updated meta-analysis. Clin Ther 22(11):1319–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen L, Shu Y, Liang X, Chen EC, Yee SW, Zur AA, Li S, Xu L, Keshari KR, Lin MJ, Chien HC, Zhang Y, Morrissey KM, Liu J, Ostrem J, Younger NS, Kurhanewicz J, Shokat KM, Ashrafi K, Giacomini KM (2014) OCT1 is a high-capacity thiamine transporter that regulates hepatic steatosis and is a target of metformin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(27):9983–9988. doi:10.1073/pnas.1314939111 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boxberger KH, Hagenbuch B, Lampe JN (2014) Common drugs inhibit human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1)-mediated neurotransmitter uptake. Drug Metab Dispos 42(6):990–995. doi:10.1124/dmd.113.055095 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen L, Pawlikowski B, Schlessinger A, More SS, Stryke D, Johns SJ, Portman MA, Chen E, Ferrin TE, Sali A, Giacomini KM (2010) Role of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and its missense variants in the pharmacologic action of metformin. Pharmacogenet Genomics 20(11):687–699. doi:10.1097/FPC.0b013e32833fe789 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Duan H, Wang J (2010) Selective transport of monoamine neurotransmitters by human plasma membrane monoamine transporter and organic cation transporter 3. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 335(3):743–753. doi:10.1124/jpet.110.170142 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakata T, Anzai N, Kimura T, Miura D, Fukutomi T, Takeda M, Sakurai H, Endou H (2010) Functional analysis of human organic cation transporter OCT3 (SLC22A3) polymorphisms. J Pharmacol Sci 113(3):263–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jonker JW, Schinkel AH (2004) Pharmacological and physiological functions of the polyspecific organic cation transporters: OCT1, 2, and 3 (SLC22A1-3). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308(1):2–9. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.053298 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen EC, Liang X, Yee SW, Geier EG, Stocker SL, Chen L, Giacomini KM (2015) Targeted disruption of organic cation transporter 3 attenuates the pharmacologic response to metformin. Mol Pharmacol 88(1):75–83. doi:10.1124/mol.114.096776 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee N, Duan H, Hebert MF, Liang CJ, Rice KM, Wang J (2014) Taste of a pill: organic cation transporter-3 (OCT3) mediates metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands. J Biol Chem 289(39):27055–27064. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.570564 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Han TK, Everett RS, Proctor WR, Ng CM, Costales CL, Brouwer KL, Thakker DR (2013) Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1/mOct1) is localized in the apical membrane of Caco-2 cell monolayers and enterocytes. Mol Pharmacol 84(2):182–189. doi:10.1124/mol.112.084517 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Muller J, Lips KS, Metzner L, Neubert RH, Koepsell H, Brandsch M (2005) Drug specificity and intestinal membrane localization of human organic cation transporters (OCT). Biochem Pharmacol 70(12):1851–1860. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2005.09.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Watanabe K, Sawano T, Endo T, Sakata M, Sato J (2002) Studies on intestinal absorption of sulpiride (2): transepithelial transport of sulpiride across the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Biol Pharm Bull 25(10):1345–1350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jonker JW, Wagenaar E, Mol CA, Buitelaar M, Koepsell H, Smit JW, Schinkel AH (2001) Reduced hepatic uptake and intestinal excretion of organic cations in mice with a targeted disruption of the organic cation transporter 1 (Oct1 [Slc22a1]) gene. Mol Cell Biol 21(16):5471–5477. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.16.5471-5477.2001 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang DS, Jonker JW, Kato Y, Kusuhara H, Schinkel AH, Sugiyama Y (2002) Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302(2):510–515. doi:10.1124/jpet.102.034140 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    International Transporter C, Giacomini KM, Huang SM, Tweedie DJ, Benet LZ, Brouwer KL, Chu X, Dahlin A, Evers R, Fischer V, Hillgren KM, Hoffmaster KA, Ishikawa T, Keppler D, Kim RB, Lee CA, Niemi M, Polli JW, Sugiyama Y, Swaan PW, Ware JA, Wright SH, Yee SW, Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Zhang L (2010) Membrane transporters in drug development. Nat Rev Drug Discov 9(3):215–236. doi:10.1038/nrd3028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koepsell H, Lips K, Volk C (2007) Polyspecific organic cation transporters: structure, function, physiological roles, and biopharmaceutical implications. Pharm Res 24(7):1227–1251. doi:10.1007/s11095-007-9254-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nies AT, Koepsell H, Winter S, Burk O, Klein K, Kerb R, Zanger UM, Keppler D, Schwab M, Schaeffeler E (2009) Expression of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3) is affected by genetic factors and cholestasis in human liver. Hepatology 50(4):1227–1240. doi:10.1002/hep.23103 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tanihara Y, Masuda S, Sato T, Katsura T, Ogawa O, Inui K (2007) Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters. Biochem Pharmacol 74(2):359–371. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.04.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shu Y, Sheardown SA, Brown C, Owen RP, Zhang S, Castro RA, Ianculescu AG, Yue L, Lo JC, Burchard EG, Brett CM, Giacomini KM (2007) Effect of genetic variation in the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) on metformin action. J Clin Investig 117(5):1422–1431. doi:10.1172/JCI30558 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Masuda S, Terada T, Yonezawa A, Tanihara Y, Kishimoto K, Katsura T, Ogawa O, Inui K (2006) Identification and functional characterization of a new human kidney-specific H+/organic cation antiporter, kidney-specific multidrug and toxin extrusion 2. J Am Soc Nephrol 17(8):2127–2135. doi:10.1681/ASN.2006030205 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kimura N, Masuda S, Tanihara Y, Ueo H, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K (2005) Metformin is a superior substrate for renal organic cation transporter OCT2 rather than hepatic OCT1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 20(5):379–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dujic T, Zhou K, Donnelly LA, Tavendale R, Palmer CN, Pearson ER (2015) Association of organic cation transporter 1 with intolerance to metformin in type 2 diabetes: a GoDARTS study. Diabetes 64(5):1786–1793. doi:10.2337/db14-1388 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cameron RT, Coleman RG, Day JP, Yalla KC, Houslay MD, Adams DR, Shoichet BK, Baillie GS (2013) Chemical informatics uncovers a new role for moexipril as a novel inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4). Biochem Pharmacol 85(9):1297–1305. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2013.02.026 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lounkine E, Keiser MJ, Whitebread S, Mikhailov D, Hamon J, Jenkins JL, Lavan P, Weber E, Doak AK, Cote S, Shoichet BK, Urban L (2012) Large-scale prediction and testing of drug activity on side-effect targets. Nature 486(7403):361–367. doi:10.1038/nature11159 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gregori-Puigjane E, Setola V, Hert J, Crews BA, Irwin JJ, Lounkine E, Marnett L, Roth BL, Shoichet BK (2012) Identifying mechanism-of-action targets for drugs and probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(28):11178–11183. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204524109 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hert J, Keiser MJ, Irwin JJ, Oprea TI, Shoichet BK (2008) Quantifying the relationships among drug classes. J Chem Inf Model 48(4):755–765. doi:10.1021/ci8000259 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Keiser MJ, Roth BL, Armbruster BN, Ernsberger P, Irwin JJ, Shoichet BK (2007) Relating protein pharmacology by ligand chemistry. Nat Biotechnol 25(2):197–206. doi:10.1038/nbt1284 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM (2013) Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem 56(3):781–795. doi:10.1021/jm301302s PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Minematsu T, Giacomini KM (2011) Interactions of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with organic cation transporters and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion proteins. Mol Cancer Ther 10(3):531–539. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0731 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Keiser MJ, Setola V, Irwin JJ, Laggner C, Abbas AI, Hufeisen SJ, Jensen NH, Kuijer MB, Matos RC, Tran TB, Whaley R, Glennon RA, Hert J, Thomas KL, Edwards DD, Shoichet BK, Roth BL (2009) Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs. Nature 462(7270):175–181. doi:10.1038/nature08506 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ellis KJ, Morrison JF (1982) Buffers of constant ionic strength for studying pH-dependent processes. Methods Enzymol 87:405–426CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bardsley WG, Crabbe MJ, Shindler JS (1973) Kinetics of the diamine oxidase reaction. Biochem J 131(3):459–469PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Uhlen M, Fagerberg L, Hallstrom BM, Lindskog C, Oksvold P, Mardinoglu A, Sivertsson A, Kampf C, Sjostedt E, Asplund A, Olsson I, Edlund K, Lundberg E, Navani S, Szigyarto CA, Odeberg J, Djureinovic D, Takanen JO, Hober S, Alm T, Edqvist PH, Berling H, Tegel H, Mulder J, Rockberg J, Nilsson P, Schwenk JM, Hamsten M, von Feilitzen K, Forsberg M, Persson L, Johansson F, Zwahlen M, von Heijne G, Nielsen J, Ponten F (2015) Proteomics. Tissue-based map of the human proteome. Science 347(6220):1260419. doi:10.1126/science.1260419 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schwelberger HG, Feurle J, Houen G (2013) New tools for studying old questions: antibodies for human diamine oxidase. J Neural Transm 120(6):1019–1026. doi:10.1007/s00702-012-0936-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shamji MH, Layhadi JA, Scadding GW, Cheung DK, Calderon MA, Turka LA, Phippard D, Durham SR (2015) Basophil expression of diamine oxidase: a novel biomarker of allergen immunotherapy response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 135(4):913–921 e919. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.09.049 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Music E, Korosec P, Silar M, Adamic K, Kosnik M, Rijavec M (2013) Serum diamine oxidase activity as a diagnostic test for histamine intolerance. Wien Klin Wochenschr 125(9–10):239–243. doi:10.1007/s00508-013-0354-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Maintz L, Yu CF, Rodriguez E, Baurecht H, Bieber T, Illig T, Weidinger S, Novak N (2011) Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the diamine oxidase gene with diamine oxidase serum activities. Allergy 66(7):893–902. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02548.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wantke F, Gotz M, Jarisch R (1993) Histamine-free diet: treatment of choice for histamine-induced food intolerance and supporting treatment for chronic headaches. Clin Exp Allergy 23(12):982–985CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cubria JC, Ordonez D, Alvarez-Bujidos ML, Negro A, Ortiz AI (1991) Inhibition of diamine oxidase from porcine kidney by pentamidine and other aminoguanidine compounds. Comp Biochem Physiol B 100(3):543–546CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schwelberger HG, Bodner E (1997) Purification and characterization of diamine oxidase from porcine kidney and intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 1340(1):152–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wilcock C, Bailey CJ (1994) Accumulation of metformin by tissues of the normal and diabetic mouse. Xenobiotica 24(1):49–57. doi:10.3109/00498259409043220 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bailey CJ, Wilcock C, Day C (1992) Effect of metformin on glucose metabolism in the splanchnic bed. Br J Pharmacol 105(4):1009–1013PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Han TK, Proctor WR, Costales CL, Cai H, Everett RS, Thakker DR (2015) Four cation-selective transporters contribute to apical uptake and accumulation of metformin in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 352(3):519–528. doi:10.1124/jpet.114.220350 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gershon MD (1999) Review article: roles played by 5-hydroxytryptamine in the physiology of the bowel. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13(Suppl 2):15–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Proctor WR, Bourdet DL, Thakker DR (2008) Mechanisms underlying saturable intestinal absorption of metformin. Drug Metab Dispos 36(8):1650–1658. doi:10.1124/dmd.107.020180 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shin SY, Fauman EB, Petersen AK, Krumsiek J, Santos R, Huang J, Arnold M, Erte I, Forgetta V, Yang TP, Walter K, Menni C, Chen L, Vasquez L, Valdes AM, Hyde CL, Wang V, Ziemek D, Roberts P, Xi L, Grundberg E, Waldenberger M, Richards JB, Mohney RP, Milburn MV, John SL, Trimmer J, Theis FJ, Overington JP, Suhre K, Brosnan MJ, Gieger C, Kastenmuller G, Spector TD, Soranzo N (2014) An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites. Nat Genet 46(6):543–550. doi:10.1038/ng.2982 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Miller AD, Nonaka S (1992) Mechanisms of vomiting induced by serotonin-3 receptor agonists in the cat: effect of vagotomy, splanchnicectomy or area postrema lesion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 260(2):509–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mele M, Ferreira PG, Reverter F, DeLuca DS, Monlong J, Sammeth M, Young TR, Goldmann JM, Pervouchine DD, Sullivan TJ, Johnson R, Segre AV, Djebali S, Niarchou A, Consortium GT, Wright FA, Lappalainen T, Calvo M, Getz G, Dermitzakis ET, Ardlie KG, Guigo R (2015) Human genomics. The human transcriptome across tissues and individuals. Science 348(6235):660–665. doi:10.1126/science.aaa0355 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Uhlen M, Oksvold P, Fagerberg L, Lundberg E, Jonasson K, Forsberg M, Zwahlen M, Kampf C, Wester K, Hober S, Wernerus H, Bjorling L, Ponten F (2010) Towards a knowledge-based human protein atlas. Nat Biotechnol 28(12):1248–1250. doi:10.1038/nbt1210-1248 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Levy G (1964) Relationship between rate of elimination of tubocurarine and rate of decline of its pharmacological activity. Br J Anaesth 36:694–695CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Danhof M, Hisaoka M, Levy G (1985) Kinetics of drug action in disease states. VI: effect of experimental diabetes on phenobarbital concentrations in rats at onset of loss of righting reflex. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 232(2):435–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hisaoka M, Danhof M, Levy G (1985) Kinetics of drug action in disease states. VII: effect of experimental renal dysfunction on the pharmacodynamics of ethanol in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 232(3):717–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stapley EO, Birnbaum J, Miller AK, Wallick H, Hendlin D, Woodruff HB (1979) Cefoxitin and cephamycins: microbiological studies. Rev Infect Dis 1(1):73–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC, Gibson TP, Levy G (1980) Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene plasma concentrations after oral propoxyphene in cirrhotic patients with and without surgically constructed portacaval shunt. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28(3):417–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gibson TP, Giacomini KM, Briggs WA, Whitman W, Levy G (1980) Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene plasma concentrations in the anephric patient. Clin Pharmacol Ther 27(5):665–670CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pearson WR (2013) An introduction to sequence similarity (“homology”) searching. Current protocols in bioinformatics/editoral board, Andreas D Baxevanis [et al] Chapter 3:Unit3 1. doi:10.1002/0471250953.bi0301s42
  75. 75.
    McGrath AP, Hilmer KM, Collyer CA, Shepard EM, Elmore BO, Brown DE, Dooley DM, Guss JM (2009) Structure and inhibition of human diamine oxidase. Biochemistry 48(41):9810–9822. doi:10.1021/bi9014192 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    High A, Prior T, Bell RA, Rangachari PK (1999) Probing the “active site” of diamine oxidase: structure-activity relations for histamine potentiation by O-alkylhydroxylamines on colonic epithelium. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288(2):490–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Holt A, Baker GB (1995) Metabolism of agmatine (clonidine-displacing substance) by diamine oxidase and the possible implications for studies of imidazoline receptors. Prog Brain Res 106:187–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Banchelli G, Bertocci B, Raimondi L, Soldani G, Del Tacca M, Buffoni F (1986) Guanabenz as inhibitor of copper-containing amine oxidases. Agents Actions 18(1–2):46–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bieganski T, Kusche J, Lorenz W, Hesterberg R, Stahlknecht CD, Feussner KD (1983) Distribution and properties of human intestinal diamine oxidase and its relevance for the histamine catabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 756(2):196–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Finazzi-Agro A, Floris G, Fadda MB, Crifo C (1979) Inhibition of diamine oxidase by antihistaminic agents and related drugs. Agents Actions 9(3):244–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sook Wah Yee
    • 1
  • Lawrence Lin
    • 1
  • Matthew Merski
    • 2
    • 4
  • Michael J. Keiser
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Aakash Gupta
    • 1
  • Youcai Zhang
    • 1
  • Huan-Chieh Chien
    • 1
  • Brian K. Shoichet
    • 2
  • Kathleen M. Giacomini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic SciencesUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Neurodegenerative DiseasesUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Instituto de Biologia Molecular e CelularUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations