Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 543–560 | Cite as

Methods of solving rapid binding target-mediated drug disposition model for two drugs competing for the same receptor

  • Xiaoyu Yan
  • Yang Chen
  • Wojciech Krzyzanski
Original Paper


The target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model has been adopted to describe pharmacokinetics for two drugs competing for the same receptor. A rapid binding assumption introduces total receptor and total drug concentrations while free drug concentrations C A and C B are calculated from the equilibrium (Gaddum) equations. The Gaddum equations are polynomials in C A and C B of second degree that have explicit solutions involving complex numbers. The aim of this study was to develop numerical methods to solve the rapid binding TMDD model for two drugs competing for the same receptor that can be implemented in pharmacokinetic software. Algebra, calculus, and computer simulations were used to develop algorithms and investigate properties of solutions to the TMDD model with two drugs competitively binding to the same receptor. A general rapid binding approximation of the TMDD model for two drugs competing for the same receptor has been proposed. The explicit solutions to the equilibrium equations employ complex numbers, which cannot be easily solved by pharmacokinetic software. Numerical bisection algorithm and differential representation were developed to solve the system instead of obtaining an explicit solution. The numerical solutions were validated by MATLAB 7.2 solver for polynomial roots. The applicability of these algorithms was demonstrated by simulating concentration–time profiles resulting from exogenous and endogenous IgG competing for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and darbepoetin competing with endogenous erythropoietin for the erythropoietin receptor. These models were implemented in ADAPT 5 and Phoenix WinNonlin 6.0, respectively.


Target-mediated drug disposition Gaddum equation Erythropoietin FcRn Therapeutic antibody 



This work was supported by the Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics at the University at Buffalo, and Grant GM 57980 from the National Institute of Health.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

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