Stakeholders’ Role and Actions in the Return-to-Work Process of Workers on Sick-Leave Due to Common Mental Disorders: A Scoping Review

  • Marc CorbièreEmail author
  • Maud Mazaniello-Chézol
  • Marie-France Bastien
  • Estelle Wathieu
  • Roxane Bouchard
  • Alexandra Panaccio
  • Stéphane Guay
  • Tania Lecomte


The lack of knowledge regarding the roles and actions of return to work (RTW) stakeholders create confusion and uncertainty about how and when to RTW after experiencing a common mental disorder (CMD). Purpose The purpose of this scoping review is to disentangle the various stakeholders’ role and actions in the RTW process of workers on sick-leave due to CMDs. The research question is: What is documented in the existing literature regarding the roles and actions of the identified stakeholders involved in the RTW process of workers on sick-leave due to CMDs? Methods In conducting this scoping review, we followed Arksey and O’Malley’s (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8:19–32, 2005) methodology, consisting of different stages (e.g., charting the data by categorizing key results). Results 3709 articles were screened for inclusion, 243 of which were included for qualitative synthesis. Several RTW stakeholders (n=11) were identified (e.g., workers on sick leave due to CMDs, managers, union representatives, rehabilitation professionals, insurers, return to work coordinators). RTW stakeholders’ roles and actions inter- and intra-system were recommended, either general (e.g., know and understand the perspectives of all RTW stakeholders) or specific to an actor (e.g., the return to work coordinator needs to create and maintain a working alliance between all RTW stakeholders). Furthermore, close to 200 stakeholders’ actions, spread out on different RTW phases, were recommended for facilitating the RTW process. Conclusions Eleven RTW stakeholders from the work, heath and insurance systems have been identified, as well as their respective roles and actions. Thanks to these results, RTW stakeholders and policy makers will be able to build practical relationships and collaboration regarding the RTW of workers on sick leave due to CMDs.


Return to work Common mental disorder Stakeholder Role Action System Scoping review 



This work was supported by the Research Chair on Mental Health and Work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Centre Intégré Universitaire de Santé et Services Sociaux de l’Est-de-l’Île de Montréal (human research ethics committee).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    Claudi Jensen AG. Towards a parsimonious program theory of return to work intervention. Work Read Mass. 2013;44:155–164.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Claudi Jensen AG. A two-year follow-up on a program theory of return to work intervention. Work Read Mass. 2013;44:165–175.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Joyce S, Modini M, Christensen H, Mykletun A, Bryant R, Mitchell PB, Harvey SB. Workplace interventions for common mental disorders: a systematic meta-review. Psychol Med. 2016;46:683–697.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Netterstrom B, Friebel L, Ladegaard Y. Effects of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on patient return to work rate and symptom reduction: results from a randomised, wait-list controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2013;82:177–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Noordik E, van Dijk FJ, Nieuwenhuijsen K, van der Klink JJ. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an exposure-based return-to-work programme for patients on sick leave due to common mental disorders: design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:140.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Corbière M, Negrini A, Dewa CS. Mental health problems and mental disorders: linked determinants to work participation and work functioning. In: Loisel P, Anema JR, editors. Handbook of work disability. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnsen TL, Indahl A, Baste V, Eriksen HR, Tveito TH. Protocol for the at work trial: a randomised controlled trial of a workplace intervention targeting subjective health complaints. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:844.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Norder G, Roelen CAM, van Rhenen W, Buitenhuis J, Bültmann U, Anema JR. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence due to depressive disorders—a Delphi approach involving scientists and physicians. PLoS ONE. 2012. Scholar
  9. 9.
    van Oostrom SH, Anema JR, Terluin B, de Vet HC, Knol DL, van Mechelen W. Cost-effectiveness of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with common mental disorders: design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nigatu YT, Liu Y, Uppal M, McKinney S, Rao S, Gillis K, Wang J. Interventions for enhancing return to work in individuals with a common mental illness: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychol Med. 2016;46:3263–3274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seymour L. Common mental health problems and work: applying evidence to inform practice. Perspect Public Health. 2010;130:59–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schneider U, Linder R, Verheyen F. Long-term sick leave and the impact of a graded return-to-work program: evidence from Germany. Eur J Health Econ HEPAC Health Econ Prev Care. 2016;17:629–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshitsugu K, Kuroda Y, Hiroyama Y, Nagano N. Concise set of files for smooth return to work in employees with mental disorders. Springerplus. 2013;2:630.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jetha A, Pransky G, Fish J, Jeffries S, Hettinger LJ. A stakeholder-based system dynamics model of return-to-work: a research protocol. J Public Health Res. 2015;4:553.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soegaard HJ. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence. Int J Fam Med. 2012;2012:474989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    James KG. Returning to work after experiencing mental health problems. Ment Health Pract. 2015;18:36–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joosen MC, Brouwers EP, van Beurden KM, et al. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms. Occup Environ Med. 2015;72:313–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dewa CS. Les coûts des troubles mentaux en milieu de travail peuvent-ils être réduits ? Santé Ment Au Qué. 2017;42:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ladegaard Y, Skakon J, Elrond AF, Netterstrom B. How do line managers experience and handle the return to work of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress? A one-year follow-up study. Disabil Rehabil. 2017;41(1):44–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tjulin Å, MacEachen E, Ekberg K. Exploring workplace actors experiences of the social organization of return-to-work. J Occup Rehabil. 2010;20:311–321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Corbière M, Lecomte T, Lachance JP, Coutu MF, Negrini A, Laberon S. Return to work strategies of employees who experienced depression: employers and human resources’ perspectives. Sante Ment Que. 2017;42:173–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Josephson M, Heijbel B, Voss M, Alfredsson L, Vingard E. Influence of self-reported work conditions and health on full, partial and no return to work after long-term sickness absence. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008;34:430–437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nielsen MB, Bultmann U, Madsen IE, Martin M, Christensen U, Diderichsen F, Rugulies R. Health, work, and personal-related predictors of time to return to work among employees with mental health problems. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:1311–1316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Noordik E, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Varekamp I, van der Klink JJ, van Dijk FJ. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders: a qualitative study. Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33:1625–1635.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Russell E, Kosny A. Communication and collaboration among return-to-work stakeholders. Disabil Rehabil. 2018;41(22):2630–2639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vlasveld MC, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Adèr HJ, Anema JR, Hoedeman R, van Mechelen W, Beekman ATF. Collaborative care for sick-listed workers with major depressive disorder: a randomised controlled trial from The Netherlands depression initiative aimed at return to work and depressive symptoms. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:223–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Young AE, Wasiak R, Roessler RT, McPherson KM, Anema JR, van Poppel MNM. Return-to-work outcomes following work disability: stakeholder motivations, interests and concerns. J Occup Rehabil. 2005;15:543–556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hulshof C, Pransky G. The role and influence of care providers on work disability. In: Loisel P, Anema JR, editors. Handbook of work disability. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Loisel P. Round table with all stakeholders involved in work disability prevention. In: 3rd WDPI conference on implementing work disability prevention knowledge; 2014.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Young AE. Return to work stakeholders’ perspectives on work disability. In: Loisel P, Anema JR, editors. Handbook of work disability. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 409–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Loisel P, Gosselin L, Durand P, Lemaire J, Abenhaim L. Implementation of a participatory ergonomics program in the rehabilitation of workers suffering from subacute back pain. Appl Ergon. 2001;32(1):53–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Skivington K, Lifshen M, Mustard C. Implementing a collaborative return-to-work program: lessons from a qualitative study in a large Canadian healthcare organization. Work Read Mass. 2016;55:613–624.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pransky G, Shaw W, Franche R, Clarke A. Disability prevention and communication among workers, physicians, employers, and insurers current models and opportunities for improvement. Disabil Rehabil. 2004;26:625–634.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reynolds CA, Wagner SL, Harder HG. Physician-stakeholder collaboration in disability management: a Canadian perspective on guidelines and expectations. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:955–963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Karrholm J, Ekholm K, Jakobsson B, Ekholm J, Bergroth A, Schuldt K. Effects on work resumption of a co-operation project in vocational rehabilitation. Systematic, multi-professional, client-centred and solution-oriented co-operation. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:457–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Andersen MF, Nielsen KM, Brinkmann S. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research on return to work among employees with common mental disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012;38:93–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005;8:19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Babatunde F, MacDermid J, MacIntyre N. Characteristics of therapeutic alliance in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice: a scoping review of the literature. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:375.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Blas AJT, Beltran KMB, Martinez PGV, Yao DPG. Enabling work: occupational therapy interventions for persons with occupational injuries and diseases: a scoping review. J Occup Rehabil. 2018;28:201–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Grandpierre V, Milloy V, Sikora L, Fitzpatrick E, Thomas R, Potter B. Barriers and facilitators to cultural competence in rehabilitation services: a scoping review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18:23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reavley NJ, Ross A, Killackey EJ, Jorm AF. Development of guidelines to assist organisations to support employees returning to work after an episode of anxiety, depression or a related disorder: a Delphi consensus study with Australian professionals and consumers. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:135.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Accordino MP, McReynolds C, Accordino DB, Bard C. Professionals with psychiatric disabilities served in private disability rehabilitation: Implications for rehabilitation counselor preparation. J Appl Rehabil Couns. 2009;40:22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ahola K, Toppinen-Tanner S, Seppänen J. Interventions to alleviate burnout symptoms and to support return to work among employees with burnout: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Burn Res. 2017;4:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Akiyama T, Tsuchiya M, Igarashi Y, et al. “Rework program” in Japan: Innovative high-level rehabilitation. Asia Pac Psychiatry. 2010;2:208–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Alexis O. The management of sickness absence in the NHS. Br J Nurs. 2011;20:1437–1442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Andersen MF, Nielsen K, Brinkmann S. How do workers with common mental disorders experience a multidisciplinary return-to-work intervention? A qualitative study. J Occup Rehabil. 2014;24:709–724.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Andren D. Does part-time sick leave help individuals with mental disorders recover lost work capacity? J Occup Rehabil. 2014;24:344–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Anema JR, Jettinghoff K, Houtman I, Schoemaker CG, Buijs PC, van den Berg R. Medical care of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems: a cohort study to describe and compare the care of the occupational physician and the general practitioner. J Occup Rehabil. 2006;16:41–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arends I, van der Klink JJ, van Rhenen W, de Boer MR, Bültmann U. Prevention of recurrent sickness absence among workers with common mental disorders: Results of a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Occup Environ Med. 2013;71(1):21–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Arends I, Bruinvels DJ, Rebergen DS, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Madan I, Neumeyer-Gromen A, Bultmann U, Verbeek JH. Interventions to facilitate return to work in adults with adjustment disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD006389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arends I, Bultmann U, Nielsen K, van Rhenen W, de Boer MR, van der Klink JJL. Process evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with common mental disorders. Soc Sci Med. 2014;100:123–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arends I, van der Klink JJ, Bültmann U. Prevention of recurrent sickness absence among employees with common mental disorders: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit and effectiveness evaluation. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:132.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Arends I, van der Klink JJL, van Rhenen W, de Boer MR, Bultmann U. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014;40:195–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bakker IM, Terluin B, van Marwijk HW, Gundy CM, Smit JH, van Mechelen W, Stalman WA. Effectiveness of a Minimal Intervention for Stress-related mental disorders with Sick leave (MISS); study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice [ISRCTN43779641]. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bakker IM, Terluin B, van Marwijk HW, van der Windt DA, Rijmen F, van Mechelen W, Stalman WA. A cluster-randomised trial evaluating an intervention for patients with stress-related mental disorders and sick leave in primary care. PLoS Clin Trials. 2007;2:e26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Baynton MA. Return-to-work: addressing co-worker reactions when mental health is a factor. OOHNA J. 2010;29:9–12.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baynton MA. Return to work: strategies for supporting the supervisor when mental health is a factor in the employee’s return to work. OOHNA J. 2010;29:18–21.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Beyond Blue. The beyondblue National Workplace Program.pdf.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bilsker D, Wiseman S, Gilbert M. Managing depression-related occupational disability: a pragmatic approach. Can J Psychiatry Rev. 2006;51:76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Black O, Sim MR, Collie A, Smith P. Early-claim modifiable factors associated with return-to-work self-efficacy among workers injured at work: are there differences between psychological and musculoskeletal injuries? J Occup Environ Med. 2017;59:e257–e262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Boštjančič E, Koračin N. Returning to work after suffering from burnout syndrome: perceived changes in personality, views, values, and behaviors connected with work. Psihologija. 2014;47:131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bramwell D, Sanders C, Rogers A. A case of tightrope walking: an exploration of the role of employers and managers in supporting people with long-term conditions in the workplace. Int J Workplace Health Manag. 2016;9:238–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brenninkmeijer V, Houtman I, Blonk R. Depressed and absent from work: predicting prolonged depressive symptomatology among employees. Occup Med Oxf Engl. 2008;58:295–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Briand C, Durand MJ, St-Arnaud L, Corbière M. Work and mental health: learning from return-to-work rehabilitation programs designed for workers with musculoskeletal disorders. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2007;30:444–457.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brijnath B, Mazza D, Singh N, Kosny A, Ruseckaite R, Collie A. Mental health claims management and return to work: qualitative insights from Melbourne, Australia. J Occup Rehabil. 2014;24:766–776.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brouwers EPM, de Bruijne MC, Terluin B, Tiemens BG, Verhaak PFM. Cost-effectiveness of an activating intervention by social workers for patients with minor mental disorders on sick leave: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:214–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brouwers EPM, Tiemens BG, Terluin B, Verhaak PFM. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce sickness absence in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2006;28:223–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brouwers EPM, Terluin B, Tiemens BG, Verhaak PFM. Patients with minor mental disorders leading to sickness absence: a feasibility study for social workers’ participation in a treatment programme. Br J Soc Work. 2006;36:127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bryngelson A, Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Jensen I, Lundberg U, Asberg M, Nygren A. Self-reported treatment, workplace-oriented rehabilitation, change of occupation and subsequent sickness absence and disability pension among employees long-term sick-listed for psychiatric disorders: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2012. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Burton WN, Conti DJ. Depression in the workplace: the role of the corporate medical director. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:476–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Burton WN, Conti DJ. Disability management: corporate medical department management of employee health and productivity. J Occup Environ Med. 2000;42:1006–1012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cameron J, Walker C, Hart A, Sadlo G, Haslam I, Retain Support G. Supporting workers with mental health problems to retain employment: users’ experiences of a UK job retention project. Work Read Mass. 2012;42:461–471.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cameron J, Sadlo G, Hart A, Walker C. Return-to-work support for employees with mental health problems: identifying and responding to key challenges of sick leave. Br J Occup Ther. 2016;79:275–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Canadian Standards Association. Psychological health and safety in the workplace. Toronto: Canadian Standards. Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cancelliere C, Donovan J, Stochkendahl MJ, Biscardi M, Ammendolia C, Myburgh C, Cassidy JD. Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness: best evidence synthesis of systematic reviews. Chiropr Man Ther. 2016;24:32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Caveen M, Dewa CS, Goering P. The influence of organizational factors on return-to-work outcomes. Can J Commun Ment Health. 2006;25:121–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coduti WA, Anderson C, Lui K, Lui J, Rosenthal DA, Hursh N, Ra Y-A. Psychologically healthy workplaces, disability management and employee mental health. J Vocat Rehabil. 2016;45:327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cohen D, Kinnersley P. Sickness certification and stress: reviewing the challenges. Prim Care Ment Health. 2005;3:201–204.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Corbière M, Renard M, St-Arnaud L, Coutu MF, Negrini A, Sauve G, Lecomte T. Union perceptions of factors related to the return to work of employees with depression. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:335–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Corbière M, Shen J. A systematic review of psychological return-to-work interventions for people with mental health problems and/or physical injuries. Can J Commun Ment Health. 2006;25:261–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Corbière M, Bergeron G, Negrini A, Coutu MF, Samson E, Sauve G, Lecomte T. Employee perceptions about factors influencing their return to work after a sick-leave due to depression. J. Rehabil. 2018;84(3):3–13.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cornelius LR, van der Klink JJ, Groothoff JW, Brouwer S. Prognostic factors of long term disability due to mental disorders: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil. 2011;21:259–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cowls J, Galloway E. Understanding how traumatic re-enactment impacts the workplace: assisting clients’ successful return to work. Work Read Mass. 2009;33:401–411.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D’Amato A, Zijlstra F. Toward a climate for work resumption: the nonmedical determinants of return to work. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:67–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Danuser B. Recovery and job retention for people with mental health problems. Rev Médicale Suisse. 2012;8:226–227.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    De Bono AM. Communication between an occupational physician and other medical practitioners an audit. Occup Med. 1997;47:349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    de Clavière C, Kasbi-Benassouli V, Paollilo AG, Puypalat A, D’Escatha A, Pairon JC. Study of the medical and socioprofessional future of patients referred to a consultation of professional pathology for psychological suffering at work. Arch Mal Prof Environ. 2008;69:24–30.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    de Vries G, Hees HL, Koeter MW, Lagerveld SE, Schene AH. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach. PLoS One. 2014;9:e85038.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    de Vries G, Koeter MW, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Hees HL, Schene AH. Predictors of impaired work functioning in employees with major depression in remission. J Affect Disord. 2015;185:180–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    de Vries G, Schene AH. Reintegration to work of people suffering from depression. In: International handbook of occupational therapy interventions. New York: Springer; 2009. p. 375–382.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    de Vries H, Fishta A, Weikert B, Rodriguez Sanchez A, Wegewitz U. Determinants of sickness absence and return to work among employees with common mental disorders: a scoping review. J Occup Rehabil. 2017. Scholar
  92. 92.
    de Weerd BJ, van Dijk MK, van der Linden JN, Roelen CA, Verbraak MJ. The effectiveness of a convergence dialogue meeting with the employer in promoting return to work as part of the cognitive-behavioural treatment of common mental disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Work Read Mass. 2016;54:647–655.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dell-Kuster S, Lauper S, Koehler J, Zwimpfer J, Altermatt B, Zwimpfer T, Zwimpfer L, Young J, Bucher HC, Nordmann AJ. Assessing work ability—a cross-sectional study of interrater agreement between disability claimants, treating physicians, and medical experts. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014;40:493–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Demou E, Brown J, Sanati K, Kennedy M, Murray K, Macdonald EB. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: the EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way. Work Read Mass. 2015;53:597–608.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dewa CS, Goering P, Lin E, Paterson M. Depression-related short-term disability in an employed population. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44:628–633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dewa CS, Loong D, Bonato S. Work outcomes of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e005533.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Dewa CS, Loong D, Bonato S, Joosen MCW. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review. BMJ Open. 2015. Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dewa CS, Trojanowski L, Joosen MC, Bonato S. Employer best practice guidelines for the return to work of workers on mental disorder-related disability leave: a systematic review. Can J Psychiatry Rev Can Psychiatr. 2016;61:176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dhaliwal G. Employment and disability law: implications for occupational psychiatry and employee assistance programs. Psychiatr Ann. 2006;36:758–763.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Durand M-J, Corbière M, Coutu M-F, Reinharz D, Albert V. A review of best work-absence management and return-to-work practices for workers with musculoskeletal or common mental disorders. Work Read Mass. 2014;48:579–589.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Durand M-J, Coutu M, Nastasia I, Bernier M. Pratiques des grandes organisations au Québec en regard de la coordination du retour au travail (Return-to-Work Coordination Practices of Large Organizations in Québec). Montréal: Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail; 2016.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Eguchi H, Wada K, Higuchi Y, Smith DR. Psychosocial factors and colleagues’ perceptions of return-to-work opportunities for workers with a psychiatric disorder: a Japanese population-based study. Environ Health Prev Med. 2017;22:23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ekberg K, Wahlin C, Persson J, Bernfort L, Oberg B. Early and late return to work after sick leave: predictors in a cohort of sick-listed individuals with common mental disorders. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:627–637.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Eklund M, Erlandsson LK, Wästberg BA. A longitudinal study of the working relationship and return to work: perceptions by clients and occupational therapists in primary health care service organization, utilization, and delivery of care. BMC Fam Pract. 2015. Scholar
  105. 105.
    Endo M, Haruyama Y, Muto T, Yuhara M, Asada K, Kato R. Recurrence of sickness absence due to depression after returning to work at a Japanese IT company. Ind Health. 2013;51:165–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Endo M, Muto T, Haruyama Y, Yuhara M, Sairenchi T, Kato R. Risk factors of recurrent sickness absence due to depression: a two-year cohort study among Japanese employees. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2014;88:75–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ernstsen L, Lillefjell M. Physical functioning after occupational rehabilitation and returning to work among employees with chronic musculoskeletal pain and comorbid depressive symptoms. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2014;7:55–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ervasti J, Joensuu M, Pentti J, Oksanen T, Ahola K, Vahtera J, Kivimaki M, Virtanen M. Prognostic factors for return to work after depression-related work disability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2017;95:28–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Finnes A, Enebrink P, Sampaio F, Sorjonen K, Dahl J, Ghaderi A, Nager A, Feldman I. Cost-effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy and a workplace intervention for employees on sickness absence due to mental disorders. J Occup Environ Med. 2017;59:1211–1220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Flach PA, Groothoff JW, Krol B, Bultmann U. Factors associated with first return to work and sick leave durations in workers with common mental disorders. Eur J Public Health. 2012;22:440–445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Flach PA, Krol B, Groothoff JW. Determinants of sick-leave duration: a tool for managers? Scand J Public Health. 2008;36:713–719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fleten N, Johnsen R. Reducing sick leave by minimal postal intervention: a randomised, controlled intervention study. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:676–682.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Foley M, Thorley K, Van Hout MC. Assessing fitness for work: GPs judgment making. Eur J Gen Pract. 2013;19:230–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Frank AO, Thurgood J. Vocational rehabilitation in the UK: opportunities for health-care professionals. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2006;13:126–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Freeman D, Cromwell C, Aarenau D, Hazelton M, Lapointe M. Factors leading to successful workplace integration of employees who have experienced mental illness. Empl Assist Q. 2004;19:51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Friesen MN, Yassi A, Cooper J. Return-to-work: the importance of human interactions and organizational structures. Work. 2001;17(1):11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gabbay M, Taylor L, Sheppard L, Hillage J, Bambra C, Ford F, Preece R, Taske N, Kelly MP. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61:e118–e124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gilbert M, Samra J. Guarding minds @ work: a workplace guide to psychological safety and health. Canadian Benefits & Compensation Digest; 2010. p. 10–12.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gjesdal S, Holmaas TH, Monstad K, Hetlevik O. GP consultations for common mental disorders and subsequent sickness certification: register-based study of the employed population in Norway. Fam Pract. 2016;33:656–662.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Glozier N, Hough C, Henderson M, Holland-Elliott K. Attitudes of nursing staff towards co-workers returning from psychiatric and physical illnesses. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2006;52:525–534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gouin MM, Coutu MF, Durand MJ. Return-to-work success despite conflicts: an exploration of decision-making during a work rehabilitation program. Disabil Rehabil. 2017;41(5):523–533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Grossi G, Santell B. Quasi-experimental evaluation of a stress management programme for female county and municipal employees on long-term sick leave due to work-related psychological complaints. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41:632–638.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hansen A, Edlund C, Branholm IB. Significant resources needed for return to work after sick leave. Work Read Mass. 2005;25:231–240.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hara KW, Bjorngaard JH, Brage S, Borchgrevink PC, Halsteinli V, Stiles TC, Johnsen R, Woodhouse A. Randomized controlled trial of adding telephone follow-up to an occupational rehabilitation program to increase work participation. J Occup Rehabil. 2017. Scholar
  125. 125.
    Harder HG, Hawley J, Stewart A. Disability management approach to job accommodation for mental health disability. In: Work accommodation and retention in mental health. New York: Springer; 2011. p. 425–441.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Harvey S, Henderson M. Occupational psychiatry. Psychiatry. 2009;8:174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Harvey S, Williams S. Management of depression in NHS staff: results of the first national clinical audit. Occup Health (Lond). 2009;61:29–30.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Haugli L, Maeland S, Magnussen LH. What facilitates return to work? Patients’ experiences 3 years after occupational rehabilitation. J Occup Rehabil. 2011;21:573–581.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Haukka E, Martimo KP, Kivekas T, et al. Efficacy of temporary work modifications on disability related to musculoskeletal pain or depressive symptoms—study protocol for a controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e008300.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Haveraaen LA, Skarpaas LS, Berg JE, Aas RW. Do psychological job demands, decision control and social support predict return to work three months after a return-to-work (RTW) programme? The rapid-RTW cohort study. Work J Prev Assess Rehabil. 2016;53:61–71.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hayashi K, Taira Y, Maeda T, Matsuda Y, Kato Y, Hashi K, Kuroki N, Katsuragawa S. What inhibits working women with mental disorders from returning to their workplace?—a study of systematic re-employment support in a medical institution. Biopsychosoc Med. 2016. Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hees HL, De Vries G, Koeter MWJ, Schene AH. Adjuvant occupational therapy improves long-term depression recovery and return-to-work in good health in sick-listed employees with major depression: results of a randomised controlled trial. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:252–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hees HL, Koeter MW, de Vries G, Ooteman W, Schene AH. Effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression: design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2010. Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hees HL, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Koeter MW, Bultmann U, Schene AH. Towards a new definition of return-to-work outcomes in common mental disorders from a multi-stakeholder perspective. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39947.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Heijbel B, Josephson M, Jensen I, Vingard E. Employer, insurance, and health system response to long-term sick leave in the public sector: policy implications. J Occup Rehabil. 2005;15:167–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hellman T, Jonsson H, Johansson U, Tham K. Connecting rehabilitation and everyday life-the lived experiences among women with stress-related ill health. Disabil Rehabil. 2013;35:1790–1797.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Henderson M, Harvey SB, Øverland S, Mykletun A, Hotopf M. Work and common psychiatric disorders. J R Soc Med. 2011;105:198–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hobson J. Advising about return to work is a core activity for most occupational physicians. Occup Med Oxf Engl. 2008;58:79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hoefsmit N, Houkes I, Nijhuis FJ. Intervention characteristics that facilitate return to work after sickness absence: a systematic literature review. J Occup Rehabil. 2012;22:462–477.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hogelund J, Falgaard Eplov L. Employment effects of a multidisciplinary health assessment for mentally ill persons—a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Scand J Public Health. 2017;46(3):389–399. Scholar
  141. 141.
    Houlihan JP, Reynolds MD. Assessment of employees with mental health disabilities for workplace accommodations: case reports. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2001;32:380–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Huijs J, Koppes LL, Taris TW, Blonk RW. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave. J Occup Rehabil. 2012;22:301–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Huijs J, Koppes LLJ, Taris TW, Blonk RWB. Work characteristics and return to work in long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms. J Occup Rehabil. 2017;27:612–622.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Inoue K, Tanii H, Okazaki Y, Fujita Y, Sakuta A, Ono Y. The present situation of rework programs in Japan for individuals on long-term leaves of absence due to mental disorders: a review. Int Med J. 2008;15:333–336.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Institute for Work & Health. An evidence-informed guide to supporting people with depression in the workplace. Toronto, ON: Institute for Work & Health; 2017.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Jakobsson B, Haard US, Bergroth A, Selander J, Ekholm J. Improved cooperation in vocational rehabilitation with systematic rehabilitation group meetings. Disabil Rehabil. 2002;24:734–740.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    James C, Southgate E, Kable A, Rivett DA, Guest M, Bohatko-Naismith J. Return-to-work coordinators’ resourcefulness and the provision of suitable duties for nurses with injuries. Work Read Mass. 2014;48:557–566.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Johnston V, Way K, Long MH, Wyatt M, Gibson L, Shaw WS. Supervisor competencies for supporting return to work: a mixed-methods study. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:3–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Joyce J. Facing the challenge of mental ill health in the workplace. J Public Ment Health. 2013;12:93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Karlson B, Jönsson P, Pålsson B, Björnsson G, Malmberg B, Larsson B, Sterberg K. Return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick-leave for burnout—a prospective controlled study. BMC Public Health. 2010. Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kendrick D, Vinogradova Y, Coupland C, Christie N, Lyons RA, Towner EL, U.K. Burden of Injuries Study Group. Getting back to work after injury: the UK Burden of Injury multicentre longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:584.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kessler RC, Barber C, Birnbaum HG, Frank RG, Greenberg PE, Rose RM, Simon GE, Wang P. Depression in the workplace: effects on short-term disability. Could treating workers’ depression help employers to save money on disability? These results are encouraging. Health Aff (Millwood). 1999;18:163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kosny A, MacEachen E, Ferrier S, Chambers L. The role of health care providers in long term and complicated workers’ compensation claims. J Occup Rehabil. 2011;21:582–590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kroger C, Bode K, Wunsch EM, Kliem S, Grocholewski A, Finger F. Work-related treatment for major depressive disorder and incapacity to work: preliminary findings of a controlled, matched study. J Occup Health Psychol. 2015;20:248–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Laaksonen M, Gould R. Return to work after temporary disability pension in Finland. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:471–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Larsen EL, Labriola M, Nielsen CV, Petersen KS. Betwixt and between: Workplace perspectives on work reintegration in the eldercare sector in Denmark. Disabil Rehabil. 2015;37:1839–1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Leahy MJ, Chan Fong, Saunders JL. Job functions and knowledge requirements of certified rehabilitation counselors in the 21st century. Rehabil Couns Bull. 2003;46:66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lecomte C, Savard R. Les effets d’une intervention de counseling sur la réadaptation de travailleurs accidentés à risque de chronicité (The effects of a counselling intervention on the rehabilitation of injured workers at risk of chronicity). Montréal: Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST); 2006.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lecomte T, Corbière M. A group cognitive-behavioural intervention to prevent depression relapse in individuals having recently returned to work: protocol and feasibility. Sante Ment Que. 2017;42:87–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lemieux P, Durand MJ, Hong QN. Supervisors’ perception of the factors influencing the return to work of workers with common mental disorders. J Occup Rehabil. 2011;21:293–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lewis J, Thornbory G. Employment law and occupational health: a practical handbook. 2nd ed. London: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lippel K, Eakin JM, Holness DL, Howse D. The structure and process of workers’ compensation systems and the role of doctors: a comparison of Ontario and Québec: workers’ compensation systems and the role of doctors. Am J Ind Med. 2016;59:1070–1086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lloyd C, Tse S, Waghorn G, Hennessy N. Motivational interviewing in vocational rehabilitation for people living with mental ill health…including commentary by Scales R. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2008;15:572–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lloyd C, Waghorn G, McHugh C. Musculoskeletal disorders and comorbid depression: implications for practice. Aust Occup Ther J. 2008;55:23–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lokman S, Volker D, Zijlstra-Vlasveld MC, Brouwers EP, Boon B, Beekman AT, Smit F, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Return-to-work intervention versus usual care for sick-listed employees: health-economic investment appraisal alongside a cluster randomised trial. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e016348.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Martin MHT, Moefelt L, Nielsen MBD, Rugulies R. Barriers and facilitators for implementation of a return-to-work intervention for sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems: results from three Danish municipalities. Scandianavian J Soc Med. 2015;43:423–431.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Martin MHT, Nielsen MB, Madsen IE, Petersen SM, Lange T, Rugulies R. Effectiveness of a coordinated and tailored return-to-work intervention for sickness absence beneficiaries with mental health problems. J Occup Rehabil. 2013;23:621–630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Martin MHT, Nielsen MB, Pedersen J, Rugulies R. Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems: results of a two-year follow-up study. Disabil Rehabil. 2015;37:2107–2113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Martin MHT, Nielsen MB, Petersen SM, Jakobsen LM, Rugulies R. Implementation of a coordinated and tailored return-to-work intervention for employees with mental health problems. J Occup Rehabil. 2012;22:427–436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    McAnaney D, Wynne R. Stress, absence and reintegration: Perceptions and practice of professionals in six European jurisdictions. Int J Disabil Manag Res. 2006;1:31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    McDowell C, Fossey E. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:197–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    McFadzean M. Beyond the quick fix. Occup Health (Lond). 2006;58:17–18.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mikkelsgard KA, Granerud A, Hoye S. People with mental illness returning to work: a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian project. Scand J Occup Ther. 2014;21:172–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Milligan-Saville JS, Tan L, Gayed A, Barnes C, Madan I, Dobson M, Bryant RA, Christensen H, Mykletun A, Harvey SB. Workplace mental health training for managers and its effect on sick leave in employees: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017;4:850–858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Moll S, Clements EP. Workplace mental health: developing an employer resource through partnerships in knowledge translation. Occup Ther Now. 2008;10:17–19.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Morrison J. Work, fit notes, and occupational health. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60:715–716.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mortelmans AK, Donceel P, Lahaye D, Bulterys S. An analysis of the communication during an enhanced and structured information exchange between social insurance physicians and occupational physicians in disability management in Belgium. Disabil Rehabil. 2007;29:1011–1020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Muijzer A, Groothoff JW, Geertzen JHB, Brouwer S. Influence of efforts of employer and employee on return-to-work process and outcomes. J Occup Rehabil. 2011;21:513–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Muschalla B, Fay D, Seemann A. Asking for work adjustments or initiating behavioural changes—what makes a ‘problematic co-worker’ score Brownie points? An experimental study on the reactions towards colleagues with a personality disorder. Psychol Health Med. 2016;21:856–862.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Myette TL. Research on depression in the workplace: where do we go from here? J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:492–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Negrini A, Corbière M, Lecomte T, Coutu MF, Nieuwenhuijsen K, St-Arnaud L, Durand MJ, Gragnano A, Berbiche D. How can supervisors contribute to the return to work of employees who have experienced depression? J Occup Rehabil. 2018;28:279–288. Scholar
  182. 182.
    Netterstrom B, Bech P. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:658.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Nevala N, Pehkonen I, Koskela I, Ruusuvuori J, Anttila H. Workplace accommodation among persons with disabilities: a systematic review of its effectiveness and barriers or facilitators. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:432–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Neves Rda F, Nunes Mde O, Magalhaes L. Interactions among stakehoklders involved in return to work after sick leave due to mental disorders: a meta-ethnography. Cad Saude Publica. 2015;31:2275–2290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Nielsen MB, Madsen IE, Bultmann U, Christensen U, Diderichsen F, Rugulies R. Encounters between workers sick-listed with common mental disorders and return-to-work stakeholders. Does workers’ gender matter? Scand J Public Health. 2013;41:191–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Nielsen MB, Madsen IE, Bultmann U, Christensen U, Diderichsen F, Rugulies R. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems: findings from a longitudinal study. Eur J Public Health. 2011;21:806–811.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Nieuwenhuijsen K, Schoutens AMC, Frings-Dresen MHW, Sluiter JK. Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching combined with light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:761.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Nieuwenhuijsen K, Faber B, Verbeek JH, Neumeyer-Gromen A, Hees HL, Verhoeven AC, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Bültmann U. Interventions to improve return to work in depressed people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014. Scholar
  189. 189.
    Nilsing E, Soderberg E, Oberg B. Sickness certificates: what information do they provide about rehabilitation? Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36:1299–1304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Noordik E, van der Klink JJ, Geskus RB, de Boer MR, van Dijk FJ, Nieuwenhuijsen K. Effectiveness of an exposure-based return-to-work program for workers on sick leave due to common mental disorders: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013;39:144–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Noren AM, Bengtner J, Landstrom S, Sjoberg E. Rehabilitation coordination for return to work, as extended role for health professionals-results from a randomized controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Norlund S, Reuterwall C, Hoog J, Nordin M, Edlund C, Slunga Birgander L. Work related factors and sick leave after rehabilitation in burnout patients: experiences from the REST-project. J Occup Rehabil. 2011;21:23–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Nowland L. Application of a systems approach to the rehabilitation assessment of clients with an occupational stress-related injury. Aust J Rehabil Couns. 1997;3:9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Nystuen P, Hagen KB. Feasibility and effectiveness of offering a solution-focused follow-up to employees with psychological problems or muscle skeletal pain: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2003;3:19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Nystuen P, Hagen KB. Solution-focused intervention for sick listed employees with psychological problems or muscle skeletal pain: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2006. Scholar
  196. 196.
    Olsheski JA, Rosenthal DA, Hamilton M. Disability management and psychosocial rehabilitation: considerations for integration. Work Read Mass. 2002;19:63–70.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Otsubo T. Approaches to depression in the workplace. Jpn Med Assoc J. 2011;54:81–86.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Paton N. Review finds rehab is crucial to getting employees back to work. Occup Health (Lond). 2008;60:5.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pedersen P, Sogaard HJ, Yde BF, Labriola M, Nohr EA, Jensen C. Psychoeducation to facilitate return to work in individuals on sick leave and at risk of having a mental disorder: protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1288.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Perski O, Grossi G, Perski A, Niemi M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of tertiary interventions in clinical burnout. Scand J Psychol. 2017;58:551–561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Petrie K, Joyce S, Tan L, Henderson M, Johnson A, Nguyen H, Modini M, Groth M, Glozier N, Harvey SB. A framework to create more mentally healthy workplaces: a viewpoint. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2018;52:15–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Pomaki G. Return-to-work strategies for employees with mental health conditions. Benefits Q. 2017;33(1):50–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Pomaki G, Franche R-L, Khushrushahi N, Murray E, Lampinen T, Mah P. Best practices for return-to-work/ stay-at-work interventions for workers with mental health conditions. Final Report. Vancouver, BC: Occupational Health and Safety Agency for Healthcare in BC (OHSAH); 2010.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Post M, Krol B, Groothoff JW. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:481–488.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Raderstorf M. Depression—the occupational disability of the new millennium. Case Manag. 2001;12:57–61.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Raderstorf M, Kurtz J. Managing mental health issues in the workplace, part II. Prof Case Manag. 2007;12:303–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Raderstorf M, Kurtz J. Mental health issues in the workplace: maintaining a productive work force. AAOHN J Off J Am Assoc Occup Health Nurses 2006;54:360–365; quiz 366–367.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Raffaitin F, Caparros Panduro C, Biro G, Dardennes R. Depression and professional activity: results of the NEXTEP study. L’Encephale. 2011;37:59–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Ramano E, Buys T, De Beer M. Formulating a return-to-work decision for employees with major depressive disorders: occupational therapists’ experiences. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2016;8:e1–e5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Rasmussen K, Andersen JH. Individual factors and GP approach as predictors for the outcome of rehabilitation among long-term sick listed cases. J Occup Rehabil. 2005;15:227–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Rebeiro-Gruhl KL, Laporte R. I’m still swimming. Work Read Mass. 2008;30:323–328.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Rebergen DS, Bruinvels DJ, Bezemer PD, van der Beek AJ, van Mechelen W. Guideline-based care of common mental disorders by occupational physicians (CO-OP study): a randomized controlled trial. J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51:305–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Rebergen DS, Bruinvels DJ, Bos CM, van Der Beek AJ, van Mechelen W. Return to work and occupational physicians’ management of common mental health problems—process evaluation of a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health Suppl. 2010;36:488–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rigaud M-C, Flynn CF. Fitness for duty (FFD) evaluation in industrial and military workers. Psychiatr Ann. 1995;25:246–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Robdale N. Vocational rehabilitation: the enable employment retention scheme, a new approach. Br J Occup Ther. 2004;67:457–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Saint-Arnaud L, Saint-Jean M, Damasse J. Towards an enhanced understanding of factors involved in the return-to-work process of employees absent due to mental health problems. Can J Commun Ment Health. 2006;25:303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sairanen S, Matzanke D, Smeall D. The business case: collaborating to help employees maintain their mental well-being. Healthc Pap. 2011;11:78–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Salkever DS, Shinogle JA, Goldman H. Return to work and claim duration for workers with long-term mental disabilities: impacts of mental health coverage, fringe benifits, and disability management. Ment Health Serv Res. 2003;5:173–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Sallis A, Birkin R. Experiences of work and sickness absence in employees with depression: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. J Occup Rehabil. 2014;24:469–483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Salomonsson S, Santoft F, Lindsäter E, Ejeby K, Ljótsson B, Öst LG, Ingvar M, Lekander M, Hedman-Lagerlöf E. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and return-to-work intervention for patients on sick leave due to common mental disorders: a randomised controlled trial. Occup Environ Med. 2017;74:905–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Schafft A. Employer guides: improving job retention for people with mental health issues. Experiences from a Norwegian pilot project. J Vocat Rehabil. 2014;41:23–27.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Schene A, Hees H, Koeter M, De Vries G. Effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with major depression: a randomized controlled trial. Psychiatr Prax. 2011. Scholar
  223. 223.
    Schreuder JA, Roelen CA, de Boer M, Brouwer S, Groothoff JW. Inter-physician agreement on the readiness of sick-listed employees to return to work. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:1814–1819.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Schultz IZ, Krupa T, Rogers ES, Winter A. Organizational aspects of work accommodation and retention in mental health. In: Handbook of occupational health and wellness. New York: Springer; 2012. p. 423–439.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Schultz IZ, Rogers ES. Work accommodation and retention in mental health. New York: Springer; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Secker J, Membrey H, Grove B, Seebohm P. The how and why of workplace adjustments: contextualizing the evidence. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2003;27:3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Shamberg S. Occupational therapy practitioner role in the implementation of worksite accomodations. Work Read Mass. 2005;24:185–194.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Simpson GW, Byrne P, Gabbay MB, Rannard A. Understanding illness experiences of employees with common mental health problems. Occup Med Lond. 2016;66:80.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Singh R, O’Hagan F. “Apping up”: prospects for information technology innovation in return to work communication. J Occup Rehabil. 2019;29:104–118. Scholar
  230. 230.
    Slebus FG, Kuijer PP, Willems JH, Frings-Dresen MH, Sluiter JK. Work ability assessment in prolonged depressive illness. Occup Med Oxf Engl. 2010;60:307–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Slebus FG, Kuijer PP, Willems JH, Frings-Dresen MH, Sluiter JK. Work ability in sick-listed patients with major depressive disorder. Occup Med Oxf Engl. 2008;58:475–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Soklaridis S, Tang G, Cartmill C, Cassidy JD, Andersen J. “Can you go back to work?”: Family physicians’ experiences with assessing patients’ functional ability to return to work. Can Fam Physician Med Fam Can. 2011;57:202–209.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    St-Arnaud L, Pelletier M, Vézina M, Briand C, Paillé P, Demers É, IRSST (Québec). Santé mentale au travail: projet-pilote pour passer d’une approache individuelle de réadapation à une approach organisationnelle de prévention (St-Arnaud L, Pelletier M, Vézina M, Briand). IRSST rapport R-807; 2014.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Stahl C, Edvardsson Stiwne E. Narratives of sick leave, return to work and job mobility for people with common mental disorders in Sweden. J Occup Rehabil. 2014;24:543–554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Steenbeek R. Workers’ opinions on the effect of contact with health care providers on sickness absence duration. Work Read Mass. 2014;49:495–504.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Stigmar K, Grahn B, Ekdahl C. Work ability—experiences and perceptions among physicians. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32:1780–1789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Strauser DR, Lustig DC. The implications of posttraumatic stress disorder on vocational behavior and rehabilitation planning. J Rehabil. 2001;67:26–30.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Sylvain C, Durand MJ, Maillette P. Insurers’ influences on attending physicians of workers sick-listed for common mental disorders: what are the impacts on physicians’ practices? J Occup Rehabil. 2018;28:531–540. Scholar
  239. 239.
    Sylvain C, Durand MJ, Maillette P, Lamothe L. How do general practitioners contribute to preventing long-term work disability of their patients suffering from depressive disorders? A qualitative study. BMC Fam Pract. 2016;17:71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Thornbory G. Back to work. Occup Health (Lond). 2005;57:14–15.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Timm BJ, Swanton CL, Asp KM, Miller SK, Ring DL. Prescriptive guide for getting the depressed employee back to work. J Nurse Pract. 2013;9:458–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Tsipra I, Voutsina P, Charitaki E, Tomaras V, Kapsali A, Madianos M. The role of the occupational therapist in a community mental health centre in Greece. Br J Occup Ther. 1986;49:389–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    van Beurden KM, Brouwers EPM, Joosen MCW, de Boer MR, van Weeghel J, Terluin B, van der Klink JJL. Effectiveness of an intervention to enhance occupational physicians’ guideline adherence on sickness absence duration in workers with common mental disorders: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. J Occup Rehabil. 2017;27:559–567.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    van Beurden KM, Brouwers EP, Joosen MC, Terluin B, van der Klink JJ, van Weeghel J. Effectiveness of guideline-based care by occupational physicians on the return-to-work of workers with common mental disorders: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:193.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Hoedeman R, de Jong FJ, Meeuwissen JA, Drewes HW, van der Laan NC, Ader HJ. Faster return to work after psychiatric consultation for sicklisted employees with common mental disorders compared to care as usual. A randomized clinical trial. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010;6:375–385.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    van der Klink JJ, Blonk RW, Schene AH, van Dijk FJ. Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: a cluster randomised controlled design. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:429–437.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    van der Klink JJ, van Dijk FJ. Dutch practice guidelines for managing adjustment disorders in occupational and primary health care. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003;29:478–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    van Doren M. Employers of TPAPN nurses: what partners in recovery should i know. Tex Board Nurs Bull. 2012;43:4.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    van Oostrom SH, Anema JR, Terluin B, Venema A, de Vet HC, van Mechelen W. Development of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders: Intervention Mapping as a useful tool. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    van Oostrom SH, Heymans MW, de Vet HC, van Tulder MW, van Mechelen W, Anema JR. Economic evaluation of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with distress. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:603–610.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    van Oostrom SH, van Mechelen W, Terluin B, de Vet HC, Anema JR. A participatory workplace intervention for employees with distress and lost time: a feasibility evaluation within a randomized controlled trial. J Occup Rehabil. 2009;19:212–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    van Oostrom SH, van Mechelen W, Terluin B, de Vet HC, Knol DL, Anema JR. A workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with distress: results of a randomised controlled trial. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:596–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Victor M, Lau B, Ruud T. Patient characteristics in a return to work programme for common mental disorders: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:745.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Vierling L. Four components for an improved return-to-work program. Case Manag. 1999;10:52–54.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Vlasveld MC, Anema JR, Beekman AT, van Mechelen W, Hoedeman R, van Marwijk HW, Rutten FF, Hakkaart-van Roijen L, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Multidisciplinary collaborative care for depressive disorder in the occupational health setting: design of a randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Volker D, Vlasveld MC, Anema JR, Beekman ATF, Hakkaart-van Roijen LH, Brouwers EPM, van Lomwel AGC, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Blended E-health module on return to work embedded in collaborative occupational health care for common mental disorders: Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:529–537.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Volker D, Zijlstra-Vlasveld MC, Anema JR, Beekman AT, Brouwers EP, Emons WH, van Lomwel AG, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Effectiveness of a blended web-based intervention on return to work for sick-listed employees with common mental disorders: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17:e116.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Volker D, Zijlstra-Vlasveld MC, Brouwers EPM, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Process evaluation of a blended web-based intervention on return to work for sick-listed employees with common mental health problems in the occupational health setting. J Occup Rehabil. 2017;27:186–194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Volker D, Zijlstra-Vlasveld MC, Brouwers EP, van Lomwel AG, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM. Return-to-work self-efficacy and actual return to work among long-term sick-listed employees. J Occup Rehabil. 2015;25:423–431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Walker C, Fincham B. Managing mental health in organizations. In: Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. Oxford: Wiley; 2011. p. 97–132.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Warren PA. Behavioral health disability: innovations in prevention and management. New York: Springer; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Woodall J, Southby K, Trigwell J, Lendzionowski V, Rategh R. Maintaining employment and improving health: a qualitative exploration of a job retention programme for employees with mental health conditions. Int J Workplace Health Manag. 2017;10:42–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Wright ME. Long-term sickness absence in an NHS teaching hospital. Occup Med Oxf Engl. 1997;47:401–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Anonymous. Partnership for workplace mental health creates tools to facilitate return to work. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58:1383–1384.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Anonymous. Employers stress over absence management. Occup Health (Lond). 2011;63:5.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Bastien M-F, Corbière M. Return-to-work following depression: what work accommodations do employers and human resources directors put in place? J Occup Rehabil. 2019;29:423–432. Scholar
  267. 267.
    Vogel N, Schandelmaier S, Zumbrunn T, Ebrahim S, de Boer WE, Busse JW, Kunz R. Return-to-work coordination programmes for improving return to work in workers on sick leave. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017. Scholar
  268. 268.
    Durand M-J, Nastasia I, Coutu M-F, Bernier M. Practices of return-to-work coordinators working in large organizations. J Occup Rehabil. 2017;27:137–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Kärkkäinen R, Kinni R-L, Saaranen T, Räsänen K. Supervisors managing sickness absence and supporting return to work of employees with burnout: a membership categorization analysis. Cogent Psychol. 2018. Scholar
  270. 270.
    Cullen KL, Irvin E, Collie A, et al. Effectiveness of workplace interventions in return-to-work for musculoskeletal, pain-related and mental health conditions: an update of the evidence and messages for practitioners. J Occup Rehabil. 2017;28(1):1–15.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Lammerts L, Schaafsma FG, Eikelenboom M, Vermeulen SJ, van Mechelen W, Anema JR, Penninx BW. Longitudinal associations between biopsychosocial factors and sustainable return to work of sick-listed workers with a depressive or anxiety disorder. J Occup Rehabil. 2016;26:70–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Lammerts L, Schaafsma FG, van Mechelen W, Anema JR. Execution of a participatory supportive return to work program within the Dutch social security sector: a qualitative evaluation of stakeholders’ perceptions. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:323.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Gardner BT, Pransky G, Shaw WS, Hong QN, Loisel P. Researcher perspectives on competencies of return-to-work coordinators. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32:72–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Pransky G, Shaw WS, Loisel P, Hong QN, Désorcy B. Development and validation of competencies for return to work coordinators. J Occup Rehabil. 2010;20:41–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Lagerveld SE, Blonk RW, Brenninkmeijer V, Wijngaards-de Meij L, Schaufeli WB. Work-focused treatment of common mental disorders and return to work: a comparative outcome study. J Occup Health Psychol. 2012;17:220–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Lederer V, Loisel P, Rivard M, Champagne F. Exploring the diversity of conceptualizations of work (dis)ability: a scoping review of published definitions. J Occup Rehabil. 2014;24:242–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Gitell JH, Godfrey M, Thistlethwaite J. Interprofessional collaborative practice and relational coordination: improving healthcare through relationships. J Interprof Care. 2013;27:210–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education, Career counsellingUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal (CR-IUSMM)MontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of Family MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Department of Art HistoryConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada
  6. 6.CIUSSS de l’Est-de-l’Île-de-MontréalMontrealCanada
  7. 7.John Molson School of BusinessConcordia UniversityMontréalCanada
  8. 8.Department of Psychiatry and AddictologyUniversité de MontrealMontrealCanada
  9. 9.Department of PsychologyUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations