Measures of Patients’ Expectations About Recovery: A Systematic Review
- 739 Downloads
Introduction Patients’ expectations regarding their prognosis has been shown to affect recovery. We completed a systematic review to identify measures that assess patients’ expectations of recovery. Methods Eligible studies explored the association between patients’ expectations of recovery, and return to work or claim resolution. We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE and PSYCInfo) from inception to June 21, 2014, bibliographies of eligible studies, relevant systematic reviews and our personal files. Reviewers determined study eligibility and study quality, and completed data extraction. Results Of 14,509 unique citations, 46 studies were eligible with majority of the studies (n = 27; 59 %) rated as low quality, primarily due to substantial missing data and inappropriate adjustment for age, gender and illness severity in their regression models. We identified 5 measures and 41 individual items assessing recovery expectations. Three of seven (43 %) studies using a measure to assess recovery expectations reported psychometric properties, with only one reporting both reliability and construct validity. Only two measures (Expectations of Recovery Scale and the Work-related Recovery Expectations Questionnaire) were externally validated in different populations. Overall, 44 (96 %) studies found that patient recovery expectations was a significant predictor of return to work or sick leave/disability claim resolution. Conclusions Very few studies assessing recovery expectations use a psychometrically valid measure. Current evidence suggests that patients with lower recovery expectations are less likely to resolve their disability claim or return to work versus patients with higher recovery expectations. Further validation of existing measures for assessing patient recovery expectations, or development of a new measure that addresses the limitations of existing ones, is required.
KeywordsRecovery expectations Patient beliefs Return to work expectations Measurements Systematic review
We thank Dr. Gordon Guyatt for his intellectual input. No funds were received for this study. SE is supported by a MITACS Elevate and SickKids Restracomp Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards, CM by a graduate scholarship from the Ontario Mental Health Association, SM by MITACS Accelerate and an Ontario Graduate Scholarship, SB by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and an Ontario Graduate Scholarship, and JWB by a New Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Canadian Chiropractic Research Foundation.
Conflict of interest
JWB acts as a consultant to Prisma Health Canada, a private incorporated company funded by employers and insurers that consults on and manages long-term disability claims.
- 2.Besen E, Young AE, Shaw WS. Returning to work following low back pain: towards a model of individual psychosocial factors. J Occup Rehabil. 2014. doi: 10.1007/s10926-014-9522-9.
- 13.Hagen EM, Svensen E Eriksen HR. Predictors and modifiers of treatment effect influencing sick leave in subacute low back pain patients: predictors and modifiers of treatment effect influencing sick leave in subacute low back pain patients. Spine. 2005; 30:2717–2723.Google Scholar
- 19.Busse JW, Bhandari M, Guyatt GH, Heels-Ansdell D, Kulkarni AV, Mandel S, Sanders D, Schemitsch E, Swiontkowski M, Tornetta P 3rd, et al. Development and validation of an instrument to predict functional recovery in tibial fracture patients: the Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26(6):370–8.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Busse JW, Riva JJ, Ebrahim S, Steenstra I, de Bruin L, Zhou Q, Couban R, Mijovic H, Guyatt GH. Predictors of prolonged recovery following acceptance for disability benefits: a systematic review of observational studies. Toronto: Institute for Work and Health; 2012.Google Scholar
- 21.Streiner DL, Norman GR, editors. Chapter 8: reliability. In: Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
- 22.Heppner PP, Kivlighan DM, Wampold BE. Research design in counseling. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole; 1992.Google Scholar
- 23.Kaplan RM, Sacuzzo DP. Psychological testing: principles, applications, and issues. 4th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole; 1997.Google Scholar
- 26.Streiner DL, Norman GR, editors. Chapter 10: validity. In: Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
- 28.Busse JW, Riva JJ, Ebrahim S, Steenstra I, de Bruin L, Zhou Q, Couban R, Mijovic H, Guyatt GH. Predictors of prolonged recovery following acceptance for disability benefits: a systematic review of observational studies. Unpublished study; 2014.Google Scholar
- 36.Self-assessment of health before and after a myocardial infarction http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc3&NEWS=N&AN=1989-09155-001.
- 42.de Beurs E, Lange A, Marquenie E, du Pre M. Validity, reliability, and predictive value of the dutch version of the therapist client rating scale. Neth J Psychol. 1992;47(4):195–200.Google Scholar
- 60.Bronfenbrenner U. The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1979.Google Scholar
- 66.Stanton BA, Jenkins CD, Denlinger P, Savageau JA, Weintraub RM, Goldstein RL. Predictors of employment status after cardiac surgery. JAMA. 1983;249(7):907–911.Google Scholar
- 67.Newton SE. Renal transplant recipients’ and their physicians’ expectations regarding return to work posttransplant. Anna J. 1999;26(2):227–232.Google Scholar
- 68.Jones KR, Burney RE, Peterson M, Christy B. Return to work after inguinal hernia repair. Surgery. 2001;129(2):128–135.Google Scholar
- 69.Reiso H, Nygard JF, Jorgensen GS, Holanger R, Soldal D, Bruusgaard D. Back to work: predictors of return to work among patients with back disorders certified as sick: a 2 year follow-up study. Spine. 2003;28(13):1468–1474.Google Scholar
- 70.Shaw WS, Pransky G, Patterson W, Winters T. Early disability risk factors for low back pain assessed at outpatient occupational health clinics. Spine. 2005;30(5):572–580.Google Scholar
- 71.Dionne CE, Bourbonnais R, Fremont P, Rossignol M, Stock SR, Larocque I. A clinical return-to-work rule for patients with back pain. CMAJ. 2005;172(12):1559–1567.Google Scholar
- 72.Hansen A, Edlund C, Henningsson M. Factors relevant to a return to work: a multivariate approach. Work (Reading, Mass). 2006;26(2):179–190.Google Scholar
- 73.Heijbel B, Josephson M, Jensen I, Stark S, Vingard E. Return to work expectation predicts work in chronic musculoskeletal and behavioral health disorders: prospective study with clinical implications. J Occup Rehabil. 2006;16(2):173–184.Google Scholar
- 74.Nieuwenhuijsen K, Verbeek JH, de Boer AG, Blonk RW, van Dijk FJ. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006;32(1):67–74.Google Scholar
- 75.Samkange-Zeeb F, Altenhoner T, Berg G, Schott T. Predicting non-return to work in patients attending cardiac rehabilitation. Int J Rehabil Res. 2006;29(1):43–49.Google Scholar
- 76.Busch H, Göransson S, Melin B. Self-efficacy beliefs predict sustained long-term sick absenteeism in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain Pract. 2007;7(3):234–240.Google Scholar
- 77.Audhoe SS, Hoving JL, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Friperson R, de Jong PR, Sluiter JK, Frings-Dresen MH. Prognostic factors for the work participation of sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with psychological problems. J Occup Rehabil. 2012;22(4):437–446.Google Scholar
- 78.Cowan J, Makanji H, Mudgal C, Jupiter J, Ring D. Determinants of return to work after carpal tunnel release. J Hand Surg. 2012;37(1):18–27.Google Scholar
- 79.Sampere M, Gimeno D, Serra C, Plana M, Lopez JC, Martinez JM, Delclos GL, Benavides FG. Return to work expectations of workers on long-term non-work-related sick leave. J Occup Rehabil. 2012;22(1):15–26.Google Scholar
- 80.Seyedmehdi M, Attarchi M, Ghaffari M, Mohammadi S, Darnahal M, Sadeghi Z. Prognostic factors for return to work after low-back disc herniation surgery. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013. doi: 10.1177/1010539512471072.
- 81.Wahlin C, Ekberg K, Persson J, Bernfort L, Oberg B. Association between clinical and work-related interventions and return-to-work for patients with musculoskeletal or mental disorders. J Rehabil Med. 2012;44(4):355–362.Google Scholar
- 82.Jensen OK, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Jensen C, Nielsen CV. Prediction model for unsuccessful return to work after hospital-based intervention in low back pain patients. BMC Musculoskel Dis. 2013;14:140.Google Scholar
- 83.Laisne F, Lecomte C, Corbiere M. Biopsychosocial determinants of work outcomes of workers with occupational injuries receiving compensation: a prospective study. Work (Reading, Mass). 2013;44(2):117–132.Google Scholar
- 84.van Muijen P, Duijts SF, van der Beek AJ, Anema JR. Prognostic factors of work disability in sick-listed cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2013;7(4):582–591.Google Scholar
- 85.Lovvik C, Shaw W, Overland S, Reme SE. Expectations and illness perceptions as predictors of benefit recipiency among workers with common mental disorders: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2014;4(3):e004321.Google Scholar
- 86.Vonk Noordegraaf A, Anema JR, Louwerse MD, Heymans MW, van Mechelen W, Brolmann HA, Huirne JA. Prediction of time to return to work after gynaecological surgery: a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. BJOG. 2014;121(4):487–497.Google Scholar