Advertisement

Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 147–155 | Cite as

An International Expert Survey on Functioning in Vocational Rehabilitation Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

  • Reuben Escorpizo
  • Monika E. Finger
  • Andrea Glässel
  • Alarcos Cieza
Article

Abstract

Background Vocational rehabilitation (VR) is a key process in work disability (WD) management which aims to engage or re-engage individuals to work and employment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Organization (WHO) can be interfaced with VR but there is a lack of evidence of what ICF contents experts in the field consider. The objective of this study is to survey the experts in the VR field with regard to what factors are considered important to patients participating in VR using the ICF as the language to summarize the results. Methods An internet-based survey was conducted with experts from six WHO Regions (Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific). Experts were asked six open-ended questions on factors that are important in VR. Each question was related to a component of the ICF (body functions, body structures, activities and, environmental factors, and personal factors). Responses were linked to the ICF. Results Using a modified stratified randomized sampling, 201 experts were sent the survey and 151 experts responded (75% response rate). We identified 101 ICF categories: 22 (21.8%) for body functions, 13 (12.9%) for body structures, 36 (35.6%) for activities and participation, and 30 (29.7%) for environmental factors. Conclusions There was a multitude of ICF functioning domains according to the respondents which indicates the complexity of VR. This expert survey has provided a list of ICF categories which could be considered in VR.

Keywords

ICF Vocational rehabilitation Survey Expert Work Employment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dr. Teresa Brinkel, Veronika Lay, Miriam Lückenkemper, Andrea Pfingsten, and Wolfgang Segerer for providing technical consultation and help during the conduct of the study. Special thanks to Cristina Bostan, who is supported by a Marie Curie Fellowship from the EU funded project MURINET, the ICF Research Branch and the Swiss Paraplegic Research in Nottwil, Switzerland. This project was funded by the Swiss Accident Insurance Company (SUVA).

References

  1. 1.
    Khan F, Ng L, Turner-Stokes L. Effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation intervention on the return to work and employment of persons with multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;1(1):CD007256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lysaker PH, Davis LW, Bryson GJ, Bell MD. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on work outcomes in vocational rehabilitation for participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophr Res. 2009;107(2–3):186–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Suoyrjo H, Oksanen T, Hinkka K, Kivimaki M, Klaukka T, Pentti J, et al. The effectiveness of vocationally oriented multidisciplinary intervention on sickness absence and early retirement among employees at risk: an observational study. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66(4):235–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marini I, Lee GK, Chan F, Chapin MH, Romero MG. Vocational rehabilitation service patterns related to successful competitive employment outcomes of persons with spinal cord injury. J Vocat Rehabil. 2008;28(1):1–13.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dutta A, Gervey R, Chan F, Chou CC, Ditchman N. Vocational rehabilitation services and employment outcomes for people with disabilities: a United States study. J Occup Rehabil. 2008;18(4):326–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crowther R, Marshall M, Bond G, Huxley P. Vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;2(2):CD003080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Health Organization (2008) International classification of functioning, disability, and health. Available from: http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/site/icftemplate.cfm.
  8. 8.
    Young AE. Return to work following disabling occupational injury—facilitators of employment continuation. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010;36(6):473–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lagerveld SE, Bultmann U, Franche RL, van Dijk FJ, Vlasveld MC, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, et al. Factors associated with work participation and work functioning in depressed workers: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil. 2010;20(3):275–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Homa DB. Using the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in job placement. Work. 2007;29(4):277–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wasiak R, Young AE, Roessler RT, McPherson KM, van Poppel MN, Anema JR. Measuring return to work. J Occup Rehabil. 2007;17(4):766–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Escorpizo R, Ekholm J, Gmünder HP, Cieza A, Kostanjsek N, Stucki G. Developing a core set to describe functioning in vocational rehabilitation using the international classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF). J Occup Rehabil. 2010;20(4):502–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cieza A, Geyh S, Chatterji S, Kostanjsek N, Ustun B, Stucki G. ICF linking rules: an update based on lessons learned. J Rehabil Med. 2005;37(4):212–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1960;20:37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Efron B. The jack knife, the bootstrap and other resampling plans. Philadelphia PA: Society for industrial and applied mathematics; 1982.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vierkant RA. A SAS macro for calculating bootstrapped confidence intervals about a kappa coefficient. Available from: http://www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi22/STATS/PAPER295.PDF 2009.
  17. 17.
    Scheuringer M, Kirchberger I, Boldt C, Eriks-Hoogland I, Rauch A, Velstra IM, et al. Identification of problems in individuals with spinal cord injury from the health professional perspective using the ICF: a worldwide expert survey. Spinal Cord. 2010;48(7):529–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spoto MM, Collins J. Physiotherapy diagnosis in clinical practice: a survey of orthopaedic certified specialists in the USA. Physiother Res Int. 2008;13(1):31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lemberg I, Kirchberger I, Stucki G, Cieza A. The ICF core set for stroke from the perspective of physicians: a worldwide validation study using the Delphi technique. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;46(3):377–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lakeman R. Mental health recovery competencies for mental health workers: a Delphi study. J Ment Health. 2010;19(1):62–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Turton P, Wright C, White S, Killaspy H. DEMoBinc group. Promoting recovery in long-term institutional mental health care: an international Delphi study. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61(3):293–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stubbs J, Deaner G. When considering vocational rehabilitation: describing and comparing the Swedish and American systems and professions. Work. 2005;24(3):239–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Muijzer A, Groothoff JW, de Boer WE, Geertzen JH, Brouwer S. The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European Union. Eur J Public Health. 2010;20(6):689–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Patten SB, Williams JV, Wang J. Mental disorders in a population sample with musculoskeletal disorders. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang J, Adair CE, Patten SB. Mental health and related disability among workers: a population-based study. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49(7):514–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    United States Joint and Bone Decade. The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. Available from: http://www.boneandjointburden.org/. 2008.
  27. 27.
    World Health Organization. The burden of musculoskeletal conditions at the start of the new millenium. WHO technical report series 919. 2003.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sandqvist JL, Henriksson CM. Work functioning: a conceptual framework. Work. 2004;23(2):147–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sanderson K, Nicholson J, Graves N, Tilse E, Oldenburg B. Mental health in the workplace: using the ICF to model the prospective associations between symptoms, activities, participation and environmental factors. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30(17):1289–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kirsh B, Cockburn L, Gewurtz R. Best practice in occupational therapy: program characteristics that influence vocational outcomes for people with serious mental illnesses. Can J Occup Ther. 2005;72(5):265–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kirsh B, Krupa T, Cockburn L, Gewurtz R. A Canadian model of work integration for persons with mental illnesses. Disabil Rehabil. 29 Mar 2010.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luk KD, Wan TW, Wong YW, Cheung KM, Chan KY, Cheng AC, et al. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: a prospective study. J Orthop Surg. 2010;18(2):131–8.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bultmann U, Sherson D, Olsen J, Hansen CL, Lund T, Kilsgaard J. Coordinated and tailored work rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial with economic evaluation undertaken with workers on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders. J Occup Rehabil. 2009;19(1):81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brouwer S, Reneman MF, Bultmann U, van der Klink JJ, Groothoff JW. A prospective study of return to work across health conditions: perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support. J Occup Rehabil. 2010;20(1):104–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sweetland J, Riazi A, Cano SJ, Playford ED. Vocational rehabilitation services for people with multiple sclerosis: what patients want from clinicians and employers. Mult Scler. 2007;13(9):1183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carpenter C, Forwell SJ, Jongbloed LE, Backman CL. Community participation after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(4):427–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jongbloed L, Backman C, Forwell SJ, Carpenter C. Employment after spinal cord injury: the impact of government policies in Canada. Work. 2007;29(2):145–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reuben Escorpizo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  • Monika E. Finger
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Andrea Glässel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alarcos Cieza
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Swiss Paraplegic Research (SPF)NottwilSwitzerland
  2. 2.ICF Research Branch of WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in GermanNottwilSwitzerland
  3. 3.ICF Research Branch of WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in GermanMunichGermany
  4. 4.Rehaklinik BellikonBellikonSwitzerland
  5. 5.Institute for Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Unit for Biopsychosocial HealthLudwig-Maximilians UniversitätMunichGermany
  6. 6.Department of Health Sciences and Health PolicyUniversity of LucerneNottwilSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations