Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 450–472 | Cite as

The Readiness for Return-To-Work (RRTW) scale: Development and Validation of a Self-report Staging Scale in Lost-time Claimants with Musculoskeletal Disorders

  • Renée-Louise Franche
  • Marc Corbière
  • Hyunmi Lee
  • F. Curtis Breslin
  • C. Gail Hepburn


Introduction We report on the development and validation of a 22-item scale assessing stage of readiness for return-to-work, the Readiness for Return-to-Work (RRTW) scale. Methods Lost-time claimants (n = 632) completed a telephone survey one month after a work-related musculoskeletal injury. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of readiness items were conducted with two separate samples, and concurrent validity was examined. Results For workers not working, 60% of the variance was explained by four factors—(1) Precontemplation, (2) Contemplation (3) Prepared for Action—Self-evaluative and (4) Prepared for Action—Behavioral. For those working, 58% of the variance was explained by two factors—(1) Uncertain Maintenance and (2) Proactive Maintenance. Confirmatory factor analyses had satisfactory fit indices to confirm the initial model. Concurrent validity of the scale was supported: Relationships of readiness with depressive symptoms, fear-avoidance, pain, and general health, were generally in the hypothesized direction. Conclusions Psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument suggest that the application of the Readiness for Change model to return-to-work is relevant to work disability research. The instrument may facilitate the offer of stage-specific services tailored to injured workers’ needs, and be used for evaluation of return-to-work interventions.


Return-to-work Musculoskeletal Readiness for change Work disability Workers’ compensation Measurement 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renée-Louise Franche
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marc Corbière
    • 3
  • Hyunmi Lee
    • 1
  • F. Curtis Breslin
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Gail Hepburn
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute for Work & HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Rehabilitation DepartmentUniversity of SherbrookeLongueuilCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

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