Advertisement

Disability Management Practices in Ontario Health Care Workplaces

  • Renee M. Williams
  • Muriel G. Westmorland
  • Harry S. Shannon
  • Benjamin C. AmickIII
Original Paper

Abstract

Background: Workplace disability management programs are important in managing injury and disability. Methods: A stratified random sample of 188 employers in health care workplaces (71 hospitals, 48 nursing homes, 42 private clinics, and 27 community clinics) completed a mailed Organizational Policies and Practices (OPP) questionnaire. The OPP asked questions about eight workplace disability management practices. This article compares disability management practices across the four types of health care workplaces. Results: A one-way analysis of variance for each of the eight practices demonstrated significant differences across facility types for all practices, except ergonomic practices. For unionized versus non-unionized workplaces, there were significant differences in all practices, except ergonomic practices. For workplaces with formal policies versus those without policies, there were significant differences in all practices, except people-oriented culture and safety diligence. Conclusion: Variations in disability management practices in health care workplaces need to be addressed to provide more effective prevention and treatment of work-related injuries and disability.

Keywords

Disability management Organizational behavior Health care Surveys Organizational policies and practices Rehabilitation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research and Dr. Rochelle Habeck for permission to use the Organization Policies and Practices Questionnaire. This work is supported by a grant from the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board; Contract grant number: 00-009. Dr. Amick’s contributions were supported by a grant from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Contract grant number: 5RO11OH03523. We also thank the members of the Steering Committee: Al Bieksa, Karl Krevar, Margaret Keatings, Andrew King, and Mary Luck for their assistance with the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Frank JW, Brooker AS, DeMaio SE, Kerr MS, Maetzel A, Shannon HS, Sullivan TJ, Norman RW, Wells RP. Disability resulting from occupational low back pain. Part II: What do we know about secondary prevention? A review of the scientific evidence on prevention after disability begins. Spine 1996;21:18–29.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cullen KL, Williams RM, Shannon HS, Westmorland MG, Amick BC. Workplace organizational policies and practices in Ontario Educational Facilities. J Occup Rehabil 2005;15(3):417–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Workplace Safety and Insurance Board. 2004 Annual Report. Available at: http://www.wsib.on.ca/wsib/ wsibsite.nsf/Public/AnnualReports Accessed December 15, 2005.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Canadian Institute of Health Information. Available at: http://www.cihi.ca Accessed November 6, 2001.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sibbald B. Could reduced absenteeism help solve health-worker shortage? Can Med Assoc J 2002;166(3):365.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lipscomb J, Trinkoff A, Brady B, Geiger-Brown J. Health care system changes and reported musculoskeletal disorders among registered nurses. Am J Pub Health 2004;94(8):1431–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Collins JW, Wolf L, Bell J, Evanoff B. An evaluation of a “best practices” musculoskeletal injury prevention program in nursing homes. Injury Prev 2005;10:206–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Workplace Safety and Insurance Board. Statistical Supplement to the 2004 Annual Report. Available at: http://www.wsib.on.ca/wsibsite.nsf/Public/AnnualReports Accessed December 15, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Retsas A, Pinikahana J. Manual handling activities and injuries among nurses: an Australian hospital study. J Adv Nurs 2000;31(4):875–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trinkoff AM, Brady B, Nielsen K. Workplace prevention and musculoskeletal Injuries in nurses. J Nurs Admin 2003;33(3):153–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Archer-Gift C. Violence toward the caregiver. A growing crisis for professional nursing. Mich Nurse 2003;76(1):11–2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Aiken LH. Effects of hospital staffing and organizational climate on needle stick injuries to nurses. Am J Pub Health 2002;92(7):1115–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koehoorn M, Sullivan T. The health of nursing personnel: a summary of research findings to inform the development of a national survey in Canada. Working Paper 172. Toronto, ON. Institute for Work & Health, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geiger-Brown J, Trinkoff AM, Nielson K, Lirtmunlikaporn S, Brady B, Vasquez EI. Nurses’ perception of their work environment, health and well-being: a qualitative perspective. AAOHN J 2004;52(1):16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yassi A, Gilbert M, Cvitkovich. Trends in injuries, illnesses and policies in Canadian health care workplaces. Can J Pub Health 2005;96(5):333–8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shrey DE. Disability management in industry; the new paradigm in injured worker rehabilitation. Disabil Rehabil 1996;18(8):408–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brooker AS, Clarke J, Sinclair S, Penick V, Hogg-Johnston S. Effective disability management and return-to-work practices. In: Sullivan T, editors. Injury and the new world of work. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press; 2000, pp. 246–61.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Norman R, Wells R. Ergonomic interventions for educating musculoskeletal disorder. In: Sullivan T, editors. Injury and the new world of work. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press; 2000, pp. 115–39.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    National Institute of Disability Management and Research. Code of practice for disability management: Describing effective benchmarks for the creation of workplace disability management programs. Port Alberni, BC: National Institute of Disability Management and Research; 2000.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Frank J, Sinclair S, Bombardier C, Beaton D, Cole D. Preventing disability from work- related low-back pain. New evidence gives new hope - if we can get all the players onside. Can Med Assoc J 1998;158:1625–31.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shannon HS, Mayr J, Haines T. Overview of the relationship between organizational and workplace factors and injury rates. Saf Sci 1997;26:201–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kirsh B. Organizational culture, climate and person-environment fit: relationships with employment outcomes for mental health consumers. Work 2000;14:109–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shannon HS, Robson LS, Sale JEM. Creating safer and healthier workplaces: role of organizational factors and job characteristics. Am J Ind Med 2001;40:319–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Williams RM, Westmorland MG. Perspectives on workplace disability management: a review of the literature. Work 2002;19:87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Karasek R, Theorell T. Healthy work. Stress, productivity and the reconstruction of working life. New York, Basic Books; 1990.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Williams RM, Sundelin G, Schmuck ML. Reliability of the Demand-Control Questionnaire for sewing machine operators. Work 2001;16:71–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Franche RL, Cullen K, Clarke J, Irvin E, Sinclair S, Frank J, The Institute for Work & Health (IWH) Workplace-Based RTW Intervention Literature Review Research Team. Workplace-based return-to-work interventions: a systematic review of the quantitative literature. J Occup Rehabil 2005;15(4):607–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scully S, Habeck R, Leahy M. Knowledge and skill areas associated with disability management practice for rehabilitation counsellors. Rehabil Counsel Bull 1999;43(1):20–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Watson Wyatt Worldwide. Staying @ Work 2000/2001. The dollars and senses of effective disability management. Toronto, ON: Watson, Wyatt Worldwide; 2000.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Habeck RV, Leahy MJ, Hunt HA, Chan R, Welch EM. Employee factors related to workers’ compensation claims and disability management. Rehabil Counsel Bull 1991;34:210–26.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Habeck RV, Hunt HA, Van Tol B. Workplace factors associated with preventing and managing work disability. Rehabil Counsel Bull 1998;42:98–143.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shrey DE. Worksite disability management model for effective return to work planning. Occup Med State Art Rev 2000;15:789–801.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krause N, Dasinger LK, Neuhauser F. Modified work and return to work: a review of the literature. J Occup Rehabil 1998;8(2):113–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krause N, Frank JW, Dasinger LK, Sullivan TJ, Sinclair SJ. Determinants of duration of disability and return-to-work after work-related injury and illness: challenges for future research. Am J Ind Med 2001;40:464–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Daly MC, Bound J. Worker adaptation and employer accommodation following the onset of health impairment. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1996;51(2):S53–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Amick BC, Habeck RV, Williams RM, Ossman J, Vridine D, Katz JN. Working paper. The organizational policies and practices questionnaire. Toronto: Institute for Work & Health; 2005.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Williams RM, Westmorland MG, Shannon HS, Rasheed F, Amick BC. Disability management practices in education, hotel/motel and health care workplaces. Am J Ind Med 2005;47:217–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Streiner DL, Norman GR. Health measurement scales. A practical guide to their development and use. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    DeVellis RF. Scale development theory and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1991.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Norman GR, Streiner DL. Biostatistics. The bare essentials. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1994.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Streiner DL. A checklist for evaluating the usefulness of rating scales. Can J Psychiatry 1993;39:140–8.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Norman GR, Streiner DL. PDQ statistics. Burlington, ON: BC Decker Inc; 1988.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE. Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods. Boston, MA: PWS Kent Publishing Company; 1988.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    O’Brien-Pallas L, Shamian J, Thomson D, Alksnis C, Koehoorn M, Kerr M, Bruce M. Work-related disability in Canadian nurses. J Nurs Scholars 2004;36(4):352–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cunningham I, James P. Absence and return to work: towards a research agenda. Pers Rev 2000;29(1):33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Manitoba Federation of Labour. Brief to Manitoba Workers’ Compensation Board – Issue return to work. Winnipeg, MN: Manitoba Federation of Labour; 2004.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Canadian Labour Congress. More we get together. Disability rights and collective bargaining manual. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Labour Congress; 2001.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hunt A, Habeck RV, Van Tol B, Scully SM. Disability prevention among Michigan employers, 1988–1993. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research; 1993.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friesen MN, Yassi A, Cooper J. Return to work: the importance of human interactions and organizational structures. Work 2001;17(1):11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Silversides A. Disability management efforts can reduce number of injuries, improve bottom line. Can Med Assoc J 1998;159:268–9.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mukherjee S, Overman L, Leviton L, Hilyer B. Evaluation of worker safety and health training. Am J Ind Med 2000;38: 155–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Okun A, Lentz TJ, Schulte P, Stayner L. Identifying high-risk small business industries for occupational safety and health interventions. Am J Ind Med 2001;39(3):301–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Eakin JM, MacEachen E. Health and the social relations of work. A study of the health- related experiences of employees in small workplaces. Soc Health Illn 1998;20:896–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ontario Ministry of Labour. A Guide for the Joint Health and Safety Committees (JHSCs) and Representatives in the Workplace. Available at: http://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/hs/jhsc/index.html. Accessed May 1, 2004.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997. Available at: http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Regs/ English/980175_e.htm. Accessed June 1, 2004.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ontario Human Rights Commission. The Ontario Human Rights Code. Available at: http://www. ohrc.on.ca/english/code/index.shtml Accessed April 1, 2004.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Canadian Human Rights Act, 1985. Available at: http://www.lois.justice.gc.ca/en/h-6/text.html. Accessed May 1, 2004.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Amick BC, Habeck RV, Ossman J, Fossel AH, Keller R, Katz JN. Predictors of successful work role functioning after carpal tunnel release surgery. J Occup Environ Med 2004;46(5):490–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Katz JN, Amick BC, Keller R, Fossel AH, Soucie V, Losina E. Determinants of work absence following surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome. Am J Ind Med 2005;47:120–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ossman J, Amick BC, Habeck RV, Hunt A, Ramamurthy G, Soucie V, Katz JN. Management and employee agreement on reports of organizational policies and practices important in return to work following carpal tunnel surgery. J Occup Rehabil 2005;15(1):17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Salanti P, Dillman DA. How to conduct your own survey. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renee M. Williams
    • 1
  • Muriel G. Westmorland
    • 1
  • Harry S. Shannon
    • 2
    • 3
  • Benjamin C. AmickIII
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Rehabilitation ScienceMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Program in Occupational Health and Environmental MedicineMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Institute for Work & HealthTorontoCanada
  4. 4.University of Texas School of Public HealthHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations