Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Methodologies for Microplastics Recovery and Identification in Heterogeneous Solid Matrices: A Review

  • 209 Accesses

Abstract

The missing link in plastic mass balance between mismanaged plastic waste worldwide and plastic waste effectively detected in marine environments has recently risen the attention on microplastics. In fact, beside primary sources of microplastics such as cosmetic products and textile fires, there are secondary microplastics generated from plastic items due to weathering agents and biological degradation. While the marine and fresh water environments are actually of great concern, ground environments, and matrices related to it, have been less considered in the last years research about microplastics detection. Major attention should be reserved to solid heterogeneous matrices, such as soil, compost, sediments and sludges. Worldwide regulations about compost, which is used as amendant in agricultural fields, have a threshold ranging from 2 to 15 mm for the requirements related to plastic impurities. Microplastics which pass through the mesh of the threshold sieve are considered assimilable to compost. One of the main lacks that prevents the improvement of these regulation, is a standard protocol for microplastics detection in solid heterogeneous matrices. To this purpose, the current review proposes an outline of methods tested in previous research for microplastics recovery and identification in the matrices of our interest.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Ritchie H, Roser M (2018) Plastic pollution. Our World Data

  2. 2.

    Kaza S, Yoa L, Bhada-Tata P, Van Woerden F (2018) What a waste 2.0 a global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. World Bank Data

  3. 3.

    Jambeck JR, Geyer R, Wilcox C et al (2015) Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science 347:768–771

  4. 4.

    European Commission (2018) A European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy. Communication from the commission to the european parliament the council the european economic and social committee and the committee of the regions.

  5. 5.

    Brennholt N, Kochleus C, Reifferscheid G, et al (2017) Conference on plastics in freshwater environments. 56

  6. 6.

    Gasperi J, Dris R, Bonin T et al (2014) Assessment of fl oating plastic debris in surface water along the Seine River. Environ Pollut 195:163–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.001

  7. 7.

    Lebreton L, Egger M, Slat B (2019) A global mass budget for positively buoyant macroplastic debris in the ocean. Sci Rep Nat Res 9:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49413-5

  8. 8.

    Thompson RC, Olson Y, Mitchell RP et al (2004) Lost at sea: where Is all the plastic? Science 304:838. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1094559

  9. 9.

    Cressey D (2016) The Plastic Ocean. Scientists know that there is a colossal amount of plastic in the oceans. But they don’t know where it all is, what it looks like or what damage it does. Nature 536:263–265. https://doi.org/10.1038/536263a

  10. 10.

    Eriksen M, Lebreton LCM, Carson HS et al (2014) Plastic pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea. PLoS ONE 9:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913

  11. 11.

    Woodall LC, Sanchez-Vidal A, Canals M et al (2014) The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris. R Soc Open Sci. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140317

  12. 12.

    Rocha-Santos TAP, Duarte AC (2017) Characterization and analysis of microplastics. Elsievier, Amsterdam

  13. 13.

    Silva AB, Bastos AS, Justino CIL et al (2018) Microplastics in the environment: Challenges in analytical chemistry—a review. Anal Chim Acta 1017:1–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.02.043

  14. 14.

    Jouraiphy A, Amir S, El M, Revel J (2005) Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste. Int Biodeter Biodegrad 56:101–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2005.06.002

  15. 15.

    Costa P, Duarte AC, Rocha-santos T, Prata JC (2019) Trends in analytical chemistry methods for sampling and detection of microplastics in water and sediment: A critical review density separation. Anal Chem 110:150–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2018.10.029

  16. 16.

    Qiu Q, Tan Z, Wang J et al (2016) Extraction, enumeration and identification methods for monitoring microplastics in the environment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 176:102–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.04.012

  17. 17.

    Zhang S, Yang X, Gertsen H et al (2018) A simple method for the extraction and identification of light density microplastics from soil. Sci Total Environ 616–617:1056–1065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.213

  18. 18.

    Li X, Chen L, Mei Q et al (2018) Microplastics in sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plants in China. Water Res 142:75–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.034

  19. 19.

    Ng EL, Huerta Lwanga E, Eldridge SM et al (2018) An overview of microplastic and nanoplastic pollution in agroecosystems. Sci Total Environ 627:1377–1388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.341

  20. 20.

    Weithmann N, Möller JN, Löder MGJ et al (2018) Organic fertilizer as a vehicle for the entry of microplastic into the environment. Sci Adv 4:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aap8060

  21. 21.

    Nuelle M, Dekiff JH, Remy D, Fries E (2014) A new analytical approach for monitoring microplastics in marine sediments. Environ Pollut 184:161–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.027

  22. 22.

    Erni-cassola G, Gibson MI, Thompson RC, Christie-oleza JA (2017) Lost, but found with Nile Red: A novel method for detecting and quantifying small microplastics (1 mm to 20 μ m) in environmental samples. Environ Sci Technol. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b04512

  23. 23.

    Quinn B, Murphy F, Ewins C (2017) Validation of density separation for the rapid recovery of microplastics from sediment. Anal Methods. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ay02542k

  24. 24.

    Imhof HK, Schmid J, Niessner R et al (2012) A novel, highly efficient method for the separation and quantification of plastic particles in sediments of aquatic. Limnol Oceanogr Methods. https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2012.10.524

  25. 25.

    Crichton E, No¨el M, Giesab EA, Ross PS (2017) A novel, density-independent and FTIR-compatible approach for the rapid extraction of microplastics from aquatic sediments†. Anal Methods. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ay02733d

  26. 26.

    Kedzierski M, Le V, Bourseau P et al (2016) Microplastics elutriation from sandy sediments: A granulometric approach. Mar Pollut Bull 107:315–323

  27. 27.

    Claessens M, Van CL, Vandegehuchte MB, Janssen CR (2013) New techniques for the detection of microplastics in sediments and field collected organisms. Mar Pollut Bull 70:227–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.03.009

  28. 28.

    Maes T, Jessop R, Wellner N et al (2017) A rapid-screening approach to detect and quantify microplastics based on fluorescent tagging with Nile Red. Nat Publ Gr. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44501

  29. 29.

    Kühn S, Van WB, Van OA et al (2017) The use of potassium hydroxide ( KOH ) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms. Mar Pollut Bull 115:86–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.034

  30. 30.

    Karami A, Golieskardi A, Keong C et al (2017) A high-performance protocol for extraction of microplastics in fish. Sci Total Environ 578:485–494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.213

  31. 31.

    Naidoo T, Goordiyal K, Glassom D (2017) Are nitric acid (HNO3) digestions efficient in isolating microplastics from juvenile fish? Water Air Soil Pollut 228:470

  32. 32.

    Zhao S, Danley M, Ward JE, Mincer TJ (2017) An approach for extraction, characterization and quantitation of microplastic in natural marine snow using Raman microscopy. Anal Methods. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ay02302a

  33. 33.

    Lares M, Ncibi MC (2018) Occurrence, identification and removal of microplastic particles and fi bers in conventional activated sludge process and advanced MBR technology. Water Res 133:236–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.01.049

  34. 34.

    Shim WJ, Song YK, Hong SH, Jang M (2016) Identification and quanti fi cation of microplastics using Nile Red staining. Mar Pollut Bull 113:469–476

  35. 35.

    Van CL, Vanreusel A, Mees J, Janssen CR (2013) Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Environ Pollut 182:495–499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.08.013

  36. 36.

    Song YK, Hong SH, Jang M et al (2015) A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. Mar Pollut Bull 93:202–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.01.015

  37. 37.

    Kedzierski M, Le V, Bourseau P et al (2018) Microplastics elutriation system Part B: insight of the next generation. Mar Pollut Bull 133:9–17

  38. 38.

    Devriese LI, Van Der MMD, Maes T et al (2015) Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp ( Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area. Mar Pollut Bull 98:179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.06.051

  39. 39.

    Avio CG, Gorbi S, Regoli F (2015) Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fi sh tissues: first observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea. Mar Environ Res 111:18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.06.014

  40. 40.

    Qiu Q, Peng J, Yu X et al (2015) Occurrence of microplastics in the coastal marine environment: first observation on sediment of China. Mar Pollut Bull 98:274–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.028

  41. 41.

    Dümichen E, Eisentraut P, Bannick CG et al (2017) Fast identification of microplastics in complex environmental samples by a thermal degradation method. Chemosphere 174:572–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.010

  42. 42.

    Hermabessiere L, Himber C, Boricaud B et al (2018) Optimization, performance, and application of a pyrolysis-GC/MS method for the identification of microplastics. Anal Bioanal Chem 410:6663–6676

  43. 43.

    Corradini F, Bartholomeus H, Huerta Lwanga E et al (2019) Predicting soil microplastic concentration using vis-NIR spectroscopy. Sci Total Environ 650:922–932

  44. 44.

    Dazzi A, Saunier J, Kjoller K, Yagoubi N (2015) Resonance enhanced AFM-IR: a new powerful way to characterize blooming on polymers used in medical devices. Int J Pharm 484:109–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.02.046

  45. 45.

    Shim WJ, Hong H, Eo S (2017) Identification methods in microplastic analysis: a review. Anal Methods. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ay02558g

  46. 46.

    Heo NW, Hong SH, Han GM et al (2013) Distribution of small plastic debris in cross-section and high strandline on Heungnam Beach, South Korea. Ocean Sci J 48:225–233

  47. 47.

    Griet V, Lisbeth VC, Janssen RC et al (2015) A critical view on microplastic quantification in aquatic organisms. Environ Res 143:46–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.07.016

  48. 48.

    Dümichen E, Barthel A, Braun U et al (2015) Analysis of polyethylene microplastics in environmental samples, using a thermal decomposition method. Water Res 85:451–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.09.002

  49. 49.

    Horton AA, Walton A, Spurgeon DJ et al (2017) Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities. Sci Total Environ 586:127–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.190

  50. 50.

    Lavers JL, Oppel S, Bond AL (2016) Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris. Mar Environ Res 119:245–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.06.009

  51. 51.

    Tagg AS, Sapp M, Harrison JP, Ojeda J (2015) Identification and quantification of microplastics in wastewater using focal plane array-based Reflectance micro-FT-IR imaging. Anal Chem. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00495

  52. 52.

    Dazzi A, Prater C, Hu Q (2010) AFM–IR: Combining atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy for nanoscale chemical characterization. Appl Spectrosc 66:1365–1384

  53. 53.

    Ballent A, Corcoran PL, Madden O et al (2016) Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments. MPB 110:383–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.037

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Federica Ruggero.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ruggero, F., Gori, R. & Lubello, C. Methodologies for Microplastics Recovery and Identification in Heterogeneous Solid Matrices: A Review. J Polym Environ 28, 739–748 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-019-01644-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Microplastics
  • Solid matrices
  • Methodologies
  • Recovery
  • Identification