Advertisement

WPI and Cellulose Nanofibres Bio-nanocomposites: Effect of Thyme Essential Oil on the Morphological, Mechanical, Barrier and Optical Properties

  • Raissa Alvarenga Carvalho
  • Ana Carolina Salgado de OliveiraEmail author
  • Taline Amorim Santos
  • Marali Vilela Dias
  • Maria Irene Yoshida
  • Soraia Vilela Borges
Original paper
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

The uncertainty of consumers about the toxicological effects of synthetic antioxidants incorporated into the packaging has led to a demand for natural substituents that exhibit antioxidant activity without adding risk to the consumers. In this context, the effects of adding different concentrations of thyme essential oil (TEO) (20, 30, and 40% w/w) to whey protein isolate (WPI) and cellulose nanofibre (CNF) bio-nanocomposites developed by casting were studied. Scanning electron microscopy showed a reduction in the dispersion of CNF's in all films with the addition of TEO. The addition of TEO also decreased the water vapor permeability, increased the glass transition temperature, and crystallinity index. For the mechanical properties, the addition of TEO produced less rigid and elastic films with decreased in tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture strength, puncture deformation, and elastic modulus. In addition, the mechanical properties showed the formation of non-interactive systems and the FTIR spectra showed maintenance of the phenolic compounds of the TEO after the synthesis of the films. The optical properties showed that films were less yellow (b*) with a tendency to green (a*), less saturated (c*), and less transparent when compared with the control (0% TEO). The addition of TEO to bio-nanocomposites of WPI and CNFs, in the concentration range tested, enabled the formation of materials with properties that encourage the studies for various applications.

Keywords

Packaging Bio-nanocomposites Essential oil Characterization Food application 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) for their financial support. Authors would like to thank Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Analysis of Ultrastructural (https://www.prp.ufla.br/labs/microscopiaeletronica/), of Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) and Finep, Fapemig, CNPq e Capes for supplying equipment and technical support for experiments involving electron microscopy. Authors would like to thank Central of Analysis and Chemical Prospecting of UFLA and Finep, Fapemig, CNPq e Capes for supplying equipment and technical support for experiments involving FTIR and TGA analyzes.

References

  1. 1.
    Felix M, Perez-Puyana V, Romero A, Guerrero A (2017) Production and characterization of bioplastics obtained by injection moulding of various protein systems. J Polym Environ 25(1):91–100.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-016-0790-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li J, Chen H (2000) Biodegradation of whey protein-based edible films. J Polym Environ 8(3):135–143.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1014877800102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oymaci P, Altinkaya SA (2016) Improvement of barrier and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate based food packaging films by incorporation of zein nanoparticles as a novel bionanocomposite. Food Hydrocoll 54:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.08.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reis AB, Yoshida CM, Reis APC, Franco TT (2011) Application of chitosan emulsion as a coating on Kraft paper. Polym Int 60(6):963–969.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.3023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Siracusa V, Rocculi P, Romani S, Dalla Rosa M (2008) Biodegradable polymers for food packaging: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 19(12):634–643.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azevedo VM, Dias MV, Borges SV, Costa ALR, Silva EK, Medeiros ÉAA, Nilda de Fátima FS (2015) Development of whey protein isolate bio-nanocomposites: effect of montmorillonite and citric acid on structural, thermal, morphological and mechanical properties. Food Hydrocoll 48:179–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.02.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azevedo VM, Dias MV, Siqueira Elias de HH, Fukushima KL, Silva EK, de Deus Souza Carneiro J, de Fátima Ferreira Soares N, Borges SV (2018) Effect of whey protein isolate films incorporated with montmorillonite and citric acid on the preservation of fresh-cut apples. Food Res Int 107:306–313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.050 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hong S-I, Krochta JM (2006) Oxygen barrier performance of whey-protein-coated plastic films as affected by temperature, relative humidity, base film and protein type. J Food Eng 77(3):739–745.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.07.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garrido Assis OB, de Britto D (2011) Evaluation of the antifungal properties of chitosan coating on cut apples using a non-invasive image analysis technique. Polym Int 60(6):932–936.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.3039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ramos ÓL, Reinas I, Silva SI, Fernandes JC, Cerqueira MA, Pereira RN, Vicente AA, Poças MF, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2013) Effect of whey protein purity and glycerol content upon physical properties of edible films manufactured therefrom. Food Hydrocoll 30(1):110–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gällstedt M, Hedenqvist MS (2002) Oxygen and water barrier properties of coated whey protein and chitosan films. J Polym Environ 10(1):1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021068304169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aulin C, Gällstedt M, Lindström T (2010) Oxygen and oil barrier properties of microfibrillated cellulose films and coatings. Cellulose 17(3):559–574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-009-9393-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carvalho RA, Santos TA, de Azevedo VM, Felix PHC, Dias MV, Borges SV (2018) Bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications: effect of cellulose nanofibers on morphological, mechanical, optical and barrier properties. Polym Int 67(4):386–392.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.5518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sanchez-Garcia M, Lagaron J (2010) On the use of plant cellulose nanowhiskers to enhance the barrier properties of polylactic acid. Cellulose 17(5):987–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9430-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Spence KL, Venditti RA, Rojas OJ, Habibi Y, Pawlak JJ (2010) The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: water interactions and physical properties for packaging applications. Cellulose 17(4):835–848.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9424-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Siro I, Plackett D (2010) Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review. Cellulose 17(3):459–494.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9405-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dainelli D, Gontard N, Spyropoulos D, Zondervan-van den Beuken E, Tobback P (2008) Active and intelligent food packaging: legal aspects and safety concerns. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:S103–S112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2008.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soares NDFF, da Silva WA, dos Santos Pires AC, Camilloto GP, Silva PS (2015) Novos desenvolvimentos e aplicações em embalagens de alimentos. Ceres 56(4).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siripatrawan U, Harte BR (2010) Physical properties and antioxidant activity of an active film from chitosan incorporated with green tea extract. Food Hydrocoll 24(8):770–775.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yanishlieva NV, Marinova E, Pokorný J (2006) Natural antioxidants from herbs and spices. European J Lipid Sci Technol 108(9):776–793.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200600127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fratianni F, De Martino L, Melone A, De Feo V, Coppola R, Nazzaro F (2010) Preservation of chicken breast meat treated with thyme and balm essential oils. J Food Sci 75(8):M528–M535.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01791.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tomaino A, Cimino F, Zimbalatti V, Venuti V, Sulfaro V, De Pasquale A, Saija A (2005) Influence of heating on antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of some spice essential oils. Food Chem 89(4):549–554.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scollard J, Francis GA, O'Beirne D (2013) Some conventional and latent anti-listerial effects of essential oils, herbs, carrot and cabbage in fresh-cut vegetable systems. Postharvest Biol Technol 77:87–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hosseini MH, Razavi SH, Mousavi MA (2009) Antimicrobial, physical and mechanical properties of chitosan-based films incorporated with thyme, clove and cinnamon essential oils. J Food Process Preserv 33(6):727–743.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2008.00307.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bufalino L, de Sena Neto AR, Tonoli GHD, de Souza FA, Costa TG, Marconcini JM, Colodette JL, Labory CRG, Mendes LM (2015) How the chemical nature of Brazilian hardwoods affects nanofibrillation of cellulose fibers and film optical quality. Cellulose 22(6):3657–3672.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0771-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Segal L, Creely JJ, Martin AE, Conrad CM (1959) An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the x-ray diffractometer. Text Res J 29(10):786–794.  https://doi.org/10.1177/004051755902901003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    ASTM D (1999) 3417–99. Standard test method for enthalpies of fusion and crystallization of polymers by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Conshohocken, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, p 02Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    ASTM A (2003) D3418–03 Standard test method for transition temperatures and enthalpies of fusion and crystallization of polymers by differential scanning calorimetry. West Conshohocken, ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jones A, Mandal A, Sharma S (2015) Protein-based bioplastics and their antibacterial potential. J Appl Polym Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.41931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    ASTM Standard test method for slow rate penetration resistance of flexible barrier films and laminates. In 1990. American Society for Testing and MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Park S-i, Zhao Y (2004) Incorporation of a high concentration of mineral or vitamin into chitosan-based films. J Agric Food Chem 52(7):1933–1939.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034612p CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    ASTM D (2002) Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting. vol 14. West Conshohocken, ASTM International (EUA)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Testing ASf, Materials (2013) Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials. West Conshohocken, ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    ASTM (1980) Standard test method for transparency of plastic sheeting. Conshohocken, Annual Book of ASTM StandardsGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Atef M, Rezaei M, Behrooz R (2014) Preparation and characterization agar-based nanocomposite film reinforced by nanocrystalline cellulose. Int J Biol Macromol 70:537–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.07.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cerqueira MA, Souza BWS, Teixeira JA, Vicente AA (2012) Effect of glycerol and corn oil on physicochemical properties of polysaccharide films—a comparative study. Food Hydrocoll 27(1):175–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rubilar JF, Cruz RMS, Silva HD, Vicente AA, Khmelinskii I, Vieira MC (2013) Physico-mechanical properties of chitosan films with carvacrol and grape seed extract. J Food Eng 115(4):466–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hammann F, Schmid M (2014) Determination and quantification of molecular interactions in protein films: a review. Materials 7(12):7975–7996.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7127975 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Le Tien C, Letendre M, Ispas-Szabo P, Mateescu MA, Delmas-Patterson G, Yu HL, Lacroix M (2000) Development of biodegradable films from whey proteins by cross-linking and entrapment in cellulose. J Agric Food Chem 48(11):5566–5575.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0002241 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jutrzenka Trzebiatowska P, Dzierbicka A, Kamińska N, Datta J (2018) The influence of different glycerine purities on chemical recycling process of polyurethane waste and resulting semi-products. Polym Int 67(10):1368–1377.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.5638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lin-Vien D, Colthup NB, Fateley WG, Grasselli JG (1991) The handbook of infrared and Raman characteristic frequencies of organic molecules. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Topala CM, Tataru LD (2016) ATR-FTIR Study of thyme and rosemary oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Rev Chim (Bucharest) 67:842–846Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Scacchetti FAP, Pinto E, Soares GMB (2017) Functionalization and characterization of cotton with phase change materials and thyme oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrins. Prog Org Coat 107:64–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2017.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chung SK, Seo JY, Lim JH, Park HH, Yea MJ, Park HJ (2013) Microencapsulation of essential oil for insect repellent in food packaging system. J Food Sci 78(5):E709–E714.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12111 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Galietta G, Di Gioia L, Guilbert S, Cuq B (1998) Mechanical and thermomechanical properties of films based on whey proteins as affected by plasticizer and crosslinking agents. J Dairy Sci 81(12):3123–3130.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75877-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kadam DM, Thunga M, Wang S, Kessler MR, Grewell D, Lamsal B, Yu C (2013) Preparation and characterization of whey protein isolate films reinforced with porous silica coated titania nanoparticles. J Food Eng 117(1):133–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.01.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mondal D, Bhowmick B, Mollick MMR, Maity D, Mukhopadhyay A, Rana D, Chattopadhyay D (2013) Effect of clay concentration on morphology and properties of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films. Carbohydr Polym 96(1):57–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.03.064 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tongnuanchan P, Benjakul S, Prodpran T (2011) Roles of lipid oxidation and pH on properties and yellow discolouration during storage of film from red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscle protein. Food Hydrocoll 25(3):426–433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Basiak E, Debeaufort F, Lenart A (2016) Effect of oil lamination between plasticized starch layers on film properties. Food Chem 195:56–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.098 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Arvanitoyannis I (2005) Food packaging technology. Edited by R Coles, D McDowell and MJ Kirwan. Blackwell Publishing, CRC Press, Oxford, 2003. 346 pp ISBN 0-8493-97788-X. J Sci Food Agric 85(6):1072–1072.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu L, Kerry JF, Kerry JP (2006) Effect of food ingredients and selected lipids on the physical properties of extruded edible films/casings. Int J Food Sci Technol 41(3):295–302.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01063.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mor Y, Shoemaker CF, Rosenberg M (1999) Compressive properties of whey protein composite gels containing fractionated Milkfat. J Food Sci 64(6):1078–1083.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb12286.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Garcia MA, Martino MN, Zaritzky NE (2000) Lipid addition to improve barrier properties of edible starch-based films and coatings. J Food Sci 65(6):941–947.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb09397.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ramos E, Gomide L (2017) Avaliação da Qualidade de Carnes: Fundamentos e Metodologias (ed.). Viçosa: Editora UFVGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sarantópoulos C, Oliveira LD, Padula M, Coltro L, Alves RM, Garcia EE (2002) Embalagens plásticas flexíveis: principais polímeros e avaliação de propriedades. Campinas: CETEA/ITAL 1:267Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Science DepartmentFederal University of LavrasLavrasBrazil
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

Personalised recommendations