WPI and Cellulose Nanofibres Bio-nanocomposites: Effect of Thyme Essential Oil on the Morphological, Mechanical, Barrier and Optical Properties

  • Raissa Alvarenga Carvalho
  • Ana Carolina Salgado de OliveiraEmail author
  • Taline Amorim Santos
  • Marali Vilela Dias
  • Maria Irene Yoshida
  • Soraia Vilela Borges
Original paper


The uncertainty of consumers about the toxicological effects of synthetic antioxidants incorporated into the packaging has led to a demand for natural substituents that exhibit antioxidant activity without adding risk to the consumers. In this context, the effects of adding different concentrations of thyme essential oil (TEO) (20, 30, and 40% w/w) to whey protein isolate (WPI) and cellulose nanofibre (CNF) bio-nanocomposites developed by casting were studied. Scanning electron microscopy showed a reduction in the dispersion of CNF's in all films with the addition of TEO. The addition of TEO also decreased the water vapor permeability, increased the glass transition temperature, and crystallinity index. For the mechanical properties, the addition of TEO produced less rigid and elastic films with decreased in tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture strength, puncture deformation, and elastic modulus. In addition, the mechanical properties showed the formation of non-interactive systems and the FTIR spectra showed maintenance of the phenolic compounds of the TEO after the synthesis of the films. The optical properties showed that films were less yellow (b*) with a tendency to green (a*), less saturated (c*), and less transparent when compared with the control (0% TEO). The addition of TEO to bio-nanocomposites of WPI and CNFs, in the concentration range tested, enabled the formation of materials with properties that encourage the studies for various applications.


Packaging Bio-nanocomposites Essential oil Characterization Food application 



The authors are grateful to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) for their financial support. Authors would like to thank Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Analysis of Ultrastructural (, of Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) and Finep, Fapemig, CNPq e Capes for supplying equipment and technical support for experiments involving electron microscopy. Authors would like to thank Central of Analysis and Chemical Prospecting of UFLA and Finep, Fapemig, CNPq e Capes for supplying equipment and technical support for experiments involving FTIR and TGA analyzes.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Science DepartmentFederal University of LavrasLavrasBrazil
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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