Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 2853–2866 | Cite as

Development of a Cassava Starch-Based Foam Incorporated with Grape Stalks Using an Experimental Design

  • Juliana Both EngelEmail author
  • Alan Ambrosi
  • Isabel Cristina Tessaro
Original Paper


Concern about pollution caused by the incorrect disposal of plastic materials has led to an increasing interest in packaging made from natural resources and biodegradable materials. In this context, cassava starch-based foams incorporated with Cabernet Sauvignon grape stalks, one of the main residues from the wine industry, were prepared by thermal expansion, a simple and fast process. Grape stalks in small granulometries can provide a homogeneous matrix and help improve foam resistance. Glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, was added to improve the batter processability and the flexibility of the foams. Therefore, the influence of formulation parameters, such as the percentage of glycerol and grape stalks addition, and the particle size of the stalks was studied using a central composite experimental design. The desirability function of Statistica software was used to obtain a formulation that presented better properties for the foams. Results showed that the formulation with 13.6 wt% glycerol, 18.4 wt% grape stalks in the smallest particle size analyzed (Ø < 0.18 mm) was able to improve mechanical and humidity related properties and density of the foams. These results indicate that the foams developed in this study could be used as a substitute for EPS trays.


Grape stalks Cassava starch Foam Central composite experimental design Desirability function 



The authors thank Salton winery—Brazil for the Cabernet Sauvignon grape stalks donation and the financial support received from CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel, Brazil), CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Brazil) and FAPERGS (Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). In particular thanks to the Programa Ciência sem Fronteiras and CAPES CSF-PVE’s Project, Process Number: 88881.068177/2014-01.

Supplementary material

10924_2019_1566_MOESM1_ESM.docx (291 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 290 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliana Both Engel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alan Ambrosi
    • 2
  • Isabel Cristina Tessaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Membrane Separation Processes – LASEM, Laboratory of Packaging Technology and Membrane Development – LATEM, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Membrane Separation Processes – LABSEM, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering – EQAUniversidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)FlorianópolisBrazil

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