Advertisement

Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 2769–2783 | Cite as

Alginic Acid Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization and Application in Wastewater Treatment

  • Priti RaniEmail author
  • Pinki PalEmail author
  • Jay Prakash Panday
  • Sumit Mishra
  • Gautam Sen
Original paper
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Alum and other inorganic coagulants have been in use for water treatment since time immemorial. However, exposure to the consecutive metal ions results in chronic effects, the well known of which is Alzheimer’s disease. Alternatives to these coagulants are biopolymer based graft copolymer as flocculant. They are required in minute dosage, non-toxic and are eco-friendly. In this study, alginic acid based graft copolymers have been synthesized via conventional and microwave based technique. Molecular characterization of synthesized graft copolymers have been carried out via standard physicochemical techniques. A comparative investigation of flocculation performance of alginic acid derivatives [synthesized by both the methods i.e., Alg-g-PAM(C) and Alg-g-PAM(M)] and coagulation efficacy of alum has been accomplished in various model suspensions via standard jar test procedure. As anticipated, the flocculation efficacy of Alg-g-PAM(M) has been found much higher than that of Alg-g-PAM(C). Further, the synthesized derivatives exhibited excellent capability in reduction of pollutant load including toxic metal ions removal from wastewater.

Keywords

Alginic acid graft copolymer Flocculant Wastewater treatment Microwave based synthesis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Pinki Pal is grateful to Department of Science and Technology (DST), India, for the financial support (sanction order No. SR/WOS-A/ET-13/2014). We also thankful to Central Instrumentation Facility at Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi for their kind assistance.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmad A, Stapar SHM, Choung CS, Khatoon A, Wani WA, Kumar R, Rafatullah M (2015) Recent advances in new generation dye removal technologies: novel search for approaches to reprocess wastewater. RSC Adv 5:30801–30818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feng L, Zheng H, Wang Y, Zhang S, Xu B (2017) Ultrasonic-template technology inducing and regulating cationic microblocks in CPAM: characterization, mechanism and sludge flocculation performance. RSC Adv 7:23444–23456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhao Y, He S, Wei M, Evansa DG, Duana X (2010) Hierarchical films of layered double hydroxides by using a sol–gel process and their high adaptability in water treatment. Chem Commun 46:3031–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cravotto G, Carlo SD, Curini M, Tumiatti V, Rogger C (2007) A new flow reactor for the treatment of polluted water with the microwave and ultrasound. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh RP, Karmakar GP, Rath SK, Karmakar NC, Pandey SR, Tripathy T (2000) Biodegradable drag reducing agent and flocculant based on polysaccharide: material and applications. Polym Eng Sci 40:46–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pal P, Pandey JP, Sen G (2017) Synthesis, characterization and flocculation studies of a novel graft copolymer towards destabilization of carbon nano-tubes from effluent. Polymer 112:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu L, Zhang X, Chen L, Zhang H, Li C, Lv Y, Xu Y, Jia X, Shi Y, Guo X (2018) Amphoteric starch derivatives as reusable flocculant for heavy-metal removal. RSC Adv 8:1274–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh RP (1995) Advanced turbulent drag reducing and flocculating materials based on polysaccharides. In: Prasad N, Mark JE, Fai TJ (eds) Polymers and other advanced materials emerging technologies and business opportunities. Springer, New York, pp 227–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brostow W, Pal S, Singh RP (2007) A model of flocculation. Mater Lett 61:4381–4384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pal P, Pandey JP, Sen G (2018) Synthesis and study of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Hyd.PVP-g-PAM) as flocculant for removal of nanoparticles from aqueous system. Mater Sci Eng B 236–237:32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pal P, Pandey JP, Sen G (2017) Synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP-g-PAM) and study of its application in algal biomass harvesting. Ecol Eng 100:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chandia NP, Matsuhiro B, Vasquez AE (2001) Alginic acids in Lessoniatrabeculata: characterization by formic acid hydrolysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Polym 46(1):81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ingar K, Stokke DT, Yuguchi Y, Urakawa H, Kajiwara K (2003) Small-angle X-ray scattering and rheological characterization of alginate gels alginic acid gels. Biomacromol 4(6):1661–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Matsumoto Y, Ishii D, Iwata T (2017) Synthesis and characterization of alginic acid ester derivatives. Carbohydr Polym 171:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Linker A, Jones R (1964) A polysaccharide resembling a alginic acid from pseudomonas micro-organism. Nature 204:187–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matsumoto T, Kawai M, Masuda T (1992) Influence of concentration and mannuronate/gluronate ratio on steady flow properties of alginate aqueous systems. Biorheology 29:411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pask, David (1993) Jar Testing: Getting Started on a Low Budget. Tech Brief.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Satterfield Z (2005) Taste and odour control, Tech Brief 5.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    www.wecleanwater.com/pdf/Jar%20Testing.pdf, 2004. Accessed 12 Oct 2004.
  20. 20.
    www.citywater.com.au/WT_JarTesting.html, 2004. Accessed 12 Oct 2004
  21. 21.
    www.phippsbird.com/cantaff.html, 2004. Accessed 12 Aug 2004
  22. 22.
    Sen G, Kumar R, Ghosh S, Pal S (2009) A novel polymeric flocculant based on polyacrylamide grafted carboxymethylstarch. Carbohydr Polym 77:822–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tripathy T, Pandey SR, Karmakar NC, Bhagat RP, Singh RP (1999) Novel flocculating agent based on sodium alginate and acrylamide. Eur Polym J 35:2057–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kongparakul S, Prasassarakich P, Rempel LG (2008) Effect of grafted methyl methacrylate on the catalytic hydrogenation of natural rubber. Eur Polym J 44:1915–1920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pal P, Pandey JP, Sen G (2018) Sesbania gum based hydrogel as platform for sustained drug delivery: an ‘in vitro’ study of 5-Fu release. Int J Biol Macromol 113:1116–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fanta GF (1973) Synthesis of graft and block copolymers of starch. In: Ceresa RJ (ed) Block and graft copolymerization. Wiley, New York, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fanta GF (1973) Properties and applications of graft and block copolymers of starch. In: Ceresa RJ (ed) Block and graft copolymerization. Wiley, New York, pp 29–45Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rong Y, Sillick M, Gregson CM (2009) Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry. J Food Sci 74:1750–3841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Collins EA, Bares J, Billmeyer FW (1973) Experiments in polymer science. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pal P, Suman S, Verma A, Pandey JP, Sen G (2018) Synthesis and optimization of hydrolyzed gum ghatti as nano-hunters—flocculant for destabilization of nanoparticles. Colloids Surf A 555:699–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Greenberg A (1999) Standard method of examination of water and wastewater. American association of Public Health twenth edn, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kaur L, Gupta GD (2017) A review on microwave assisted grafting of polymers. Int J Pharm Sci Res 8(2):422–426Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malviya R, Sharma PK, Dubey SK (2018) Microwave controlled the green synthesis of acrylamide graft copolymers of azadirachita indica gum for the wastewater management. Curr Appl Polym Sci 2:130–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bashir A, Malviya R, Sharma PK (2015) Microwave assisted grafting of natural polysaccharides. J Chronother Drug Deliv 6(3):79–92Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryBirla Institute of TechnologyRanchiIndia

Personalised recommendations