Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 11, pp 2490–2508 | Cite as

Hopes Beyond PET Recycling: Environmentally Clean and Engineeringly Applicable

  • Ramin Shamsi
  • Gity Mir Mohamad SadeghiEmail author
  • Henri Vahabi
  • Javad Seyfi
  • Reza Sheibani
  • Payam Zarrintaj
  • Fouad Laoutid
  • Mohammad Reza SaebEmail author
Original paper


Disposal of plastics in the environment has become a core of anxiety in developing countries, while in the developed countries the focus has additionally been placed on design and manufacture of emerging products from plastic wastes—a somewhat vague yet promising horizon. Central to environmental concerns are poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) wastes, mainly from post-consumer bottles. Because of a considerable drop in molecular weight in the course of recycling, recycled PETs are not suitable for engineering uses. An efficient yet reasonably green synthesis route is employed here to convert PET wastes into polyurethane, and then carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was added at different levels to obtain nanocomposites with high mechanical properties. The effects of isocyanate (NCO)/hydroxyl (OH) molar ratio and CNTs content on the morphology, physical and mechanical properties were discussed. Chemical/physical crosslink density was calculated from initial slope of stress–strain curves, Mooney–Rivlin plots, strain-hardening modulus, rubbery-plateau storage modulus and swelling data. High tensile strength (300 MPa) and breaking elongation (160%) of polyurethane/CNTs nanocomposites born from PET wastes seemed promising. Microscopic analyses by AFM, SEM, and TEM gave useful information about distribution of CNTs in polyurethane. Lastly, structural changes were correlated to mechanical properties improvement.


Nanocomposites PET waste Polyurethane CNTs Recycling 



  1. 1.
    Rastin H, Ahmadi Z, Pakdel AS, Saeb MR, Abbasian Y, Liravi M, Eslahi A (2016) J Vinyl Addit Technol 22:387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Salem S, Lettieri P, Baeyens J (2009) Waste Manage 29:2625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abdolmaleki M, Tavakoli T, Jazani OM, Saeb MR (2016) J Polym Eng 36:513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Luo X, Li Y (2014) J Polym Environ 22:318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jazani OM, Arefazar A, Peymanfar MR, Saeb MR, Talaei A, Bahadori B (2013) Polym Plast Technol Eng 52:1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haghdadeh P, Ghaffari M, Ramezanzadeh B, Bahlakeh G, Saeb MR (2018) J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 86:199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Formela K, Hejna A, Zedler Ł, Przybysz M, Ryl J, Saeb MR, Piszczyk Ł (2017) Ind Crops Prod 108:844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colomines G, Rivas F, Lacoste ML, Robin JJ (2005) Macromol Mater Eng 290:710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee SC, Sze YW, Lin CC (1995) J Appl Polym Sci 55:1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shamsi R, Abdouss M, Sadeghi GMM, Taromi FA (2009) Polym Int 58:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sadeghi GMM, Shamsi R, Sayaf M (2011) J Polym Environ 19:522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shamsi R, Sadeghi GMM (2016) RSC Adv 6:38399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shamsi R, Mir Mohamad Sadeghi G, Asghari GH (2016) Polym Compos. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hadavand BS, Najafi F, Saeb MR, Malekian A (2017) High Perform Polym 29:651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zedler Ł, Colom X, Saeb MR, Formela K (2018) Compos B 145:182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Atieh MA, Bakather OY, Al-Tawbini B, Bukhari AA, Abuilaiwi FA, Fettouhi MB (2011) Bioinorg Chem Appl. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rastin H, Ahmadi Z, Saeb MR, Formela K (2016) J Vinyl Add Tech 22:415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Najafi F, Bakhshandeh E, Hadavand BS, Saeb MR (2014) Prog Org Coat 77:1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vahabi H, Gholami F, Karaseva V, Laoutid F, Mangin R, Sonnier R, Saeb MR (2017) Prog Org Coat 113:207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Halvaee M, Didehban K, Goodarzi V, Ghaffari M, Ehsani M, Saeb MR (2017) J Appl Polym Sci 134:45389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    de Paiva JMF, Frollini E (2006) Macromol Mater Eng 291:405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaddami H, Dufresne A, Khelifi B, Bendahou A, Taourirte M, Raihane M, Issartel N, Sautereau H, Gerard J-F, Sami N (2006) Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 37:1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pothan LA, Oommen Z, Thomas S (2003) Compos Sci Technol 63:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pothan LA, Thomas S, Groeninckx G (2006) Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 37:1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ahankari S, Kar KK (2008) Mater Sci Eng, A 491:454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Amrollahi M, Sadeghi GMM, Kashcooli Y (2011) Mater Des 32:3933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barick A, Tripathy D (2010) Mater Sci Eng A 527:812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van Melick H, Govaert L, Meijer H (2003) Polymer 44:2493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sari MG, Vahabi H, Gabrion X, Laheurte P, Zarrintaj P, Formela K, Saeb MR (2018) Prog Org Coat 119:171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sari MG, Saeb MR, Shabanian M, Khaleghi M, Vahabi H, Vagner C, Zarrintaj P, Khalili R, Paran SMR, Ramezanzadeh B (2018) Prog Org Coat 115:143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bakhshandeh E, Jannesari A, Ranjbar Z, Sobhani S, Saeb MR (2014) Prog Org Coat 77:1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Formela K, Klein M, Colom X, Saeb MR (2016) Polym Degrad Stab 125:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Polymer Engineering and Color TechnologyAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Research & Development CenterMarun Petrochemical CompanyMahshahrIran
  3. 3.Université de Lorraine, Centrale Supélec, LMOPSMetzFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photoniques et Systèmes, Centrale SupélecUniversité Paris-SaclayMetzFrance
  5. 5.Department of Chemical EngineeringAzad University, Shahrood BranchShahroodIran
  6. 6.Polymer Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  7. 7.Color and Polymer Research Center (CPRC)Amirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  8. 8.Advanced Materials GroupIranian Color Society (ICS)TehranIran
  9. 9.Center of Innovation and Research in Materials & Polymers (CIRMAP), Laboratory of Polymeric and Composite Materials (LPCM)University of Mons UMONS & Materia Nova Research CenterMonsBelgium
  10. 10.Department of Resin and AdditivesInstitute for Color Science and TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations