A Novel Rigid PU Foam Based on Modified Used Palm Oil as Sound Absorbing Material

  • Duangporn Riyapan
  • Anuwat Saetung
  • Nitinart SaetungEmail author
Original paper


Novel bio-polyol was successfully synthesized from used palm oil (UPO) and was further tested for preparing rigid polyurethane (PU) foams. In this work, the modified used palm oil (MUPO) was synthesized in a single step process, by epoxidation together with ring opening reactions. The reagent ratios and reaction time for MUPO synthesis were also studied. The chemical structure of MUPO was confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and FTIR. The hydroxyl value of MUPO increased with reaction time and depended also on reagent ratio. The GPC trace of MUPO showed a bimodal distribution and the molecular weight slightly decreased with OH value. New rigid PU foams were prepared from MUPO. The foam cell size and compressive strength at 10% strain increased with OH value. All the rigid PU foams had excellent sound absorption coefficients. The lowest OH value (OHV = 100 mg KOH/g) provided sound absorption from 2200 Hz. In addition, the flammability of PU foams was improved by adding 30% wt of triphosphate (TPP) as flame retardant. The investigations showed that a bio-polyol based on UPO was suitable for preparing rigid PU foams that could serve as alternative sound absorbing materials.

Graphical Abstract


Used palm oil PU foam Acoustic properties Flame retardant Triphenyl phosphate 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by Government Budget Grant (SCI5807745S), Prince of Songkla University Ph.D. Scholarship, Rubber products Development Group, Faculty of Science (RPD), and Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. We would like to thank the Research and Development Office (RDO) and Assoc Prof. Seppo Karrila for assistance with manuscript preparation.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of SciencePrince of Songkla UniversitySongkhlaThailand
  2. 2.Department of Rubber Technology and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science and TechnologyPrince of Songkla UniversityPattaniThailand

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