Biodegradation of Yerba Mate Waste Based Fertilizer Capsules. Effect of Temperature
Yerba mate waste based urea fertilizer capsules were obtained and characterized. Yerba mate powder (YMP) content in these encapsulation systems ranged from 52 to 82% for the different formulations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of yerba mate powder:calcium alginate ratio and the assay temperature on capsule degradation and urea release rate in soil. Degradation evolution was monitored by microbiological tests, environmental scanning electronic microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Encapsulation efficiency increased with YMP content. The green fertilizing systems generated did not inhibit microorganism development in soil. Degradation was slower for capsules with higher YMP content. Capsules with high YMP content released lower amounts of urea. Both degradation and release rates increased with assay temperature. The recycling of yerba mate powder as a green composite material originated a new fertilizer system.
KeywordsWaste Yerba mate powder Urea Eco-friendly
This work has been carried out thanks to project “PRASY 060-14” of the “Instituto Nacional de la Yerba Mate (INYM)”. The contribution of project AGL2016-77056-R (AEI/FEDER, UE) from the Spanish MINECO, is also acknowledged. L. Llive was supported by the “Instituto de Fomento al Talento Humano”, within the fellowship program funded from the Ecuador. The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable assistance provided by R. Dominguez in the technical DSC work and G. Guerrero in atomic absorption analysis.
- 6.Bennett EM, Carpenter SR, Caraco NF (2001) Human impact on erodable phosphorus and eutrophication: a global perspective: increasing accumulation of phosphorus in soil threatens rivers, lakes, and coastal oceans with eutrophication. AIBS Bull 51:227Google Scholar
- 10.USEPA (2009) Principles for Greener Cleanups United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency ResponseGoogle Scholar
- 20.Llive L (2018) Empleo de subproductos de la industria yerbatera en el desarrollo de sistemas de encapsulación para la liberación controlada de fertilizantes (Master dissertation, Universidad Nacional de La Plata)Google Scholar
- 21.Searcy RL, Reardon JE, Foreman JA (1967) A new photometric method for serum urea nitrogen determination. Am J Med Technol 33:15Google Scholar
- 26.Manual F (1998) IFDC. Kluwer Academic, NorwellGoogle Scholar
- 27.Fulton J, Port K (2016) Physical properties of granular fertilizers and impact on spreading Ohio University. https://digitalag.osuedu/precision-ag/research-focuses/precision-crop-management
- 33.Sarkar A, Biswas DR, Datta SC, Manjaiah KM, Roy T (2017) Release of phosphorus from laboratory made coated phosphatic fertilizers in soil under different temperature and moisture regimes. Proc Natl Acad Sci India B 87:1299Google Scholar
- 50.Hussain MR, Devi R, Maji T (2012) Controlled release of urea from chitosan microspheres prepared by emulsification and cross-linking method Iran. Polym J 21:473Google Scholar
- 55.Trenkel M E (2010) Slow and controlled-release and stabilized fertilizers: an option for enhancing nutrient use efficiency in agriculture IFA, International fertilizer industry association Paris FranceGoogle Scholar