Triacetin as a Secondary PVC Plasticizer

  • Nuno Gama
  • Ricardo Santos
  • Bruno Godinho
  • Rui Silva
  • Artur FerreiraEmail author
Original paper


The use of biobased plasticizers with low toxicity and good compatibility with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become more attractive in the recent years in contrast with phthalate derivatives. In this study, a glycerol derivative plasticizer (triacetin—TAG) was tested as a secondary plasticizer for PVC. TAG was added to PVC formulations from 10 up to 20 phr. The increase of the plasticizer content had a great influence on the properties of PVC samples. The good miscibility and therefore the efficient plasticization action of the TAG were supported by DMA results, since narrow peaks of tan (δ) curves and reduction of the Tg values for the samples were observed. The ensuing PVC demonstrated good rheological properties and thermal stability up to 200 °C. Finally, the presence of TAG reduces the hardness of materials and does not increase their density.


Poly(vinyl chloride) Plasticizer Biobased plasticizers Triacetin 



This work is funded by ERDF Funds through Operational Competitiveness Programme—COMPETE in the frame of the project GREENPEC—FCOMP-01-0202-FEDER-34132 and developed in the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials (Ref. FCT UID/CTM/50011/2013), financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when applicable co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement.


  1. 1.
    Burgess RH (1981) Manufacture and processing of PVC. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang J, Shu Z-J, Chen Z (2013) The protective effect of a fire-retardant coating on the insulation failure of PVC cable. Eng Fail Anal 34:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chino S, Kato S, Seo J, Ataka Y (2009) Study on emission of decomposed chemicals of esters contained in PVC flooring and adhesive. Build Environ 44:1337–1342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pearson R (1982) PVC as a food packaging material. Food Chem 8:85–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bidoki SM, Wittlinger R (2010) Environmental and economical acceptance of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating agents. J Clean Prod 18:219–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arkema Inc (2009) Arkema Inc introduces cost-effective tin stabilizers for rigid PVC pipe applications. Addit Polym. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Titow WV (1984) PVC technology, 4th edn. Rapra Technology Ltd, London and New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patrick SG (2004) PVC compounds and processing. Rapra Technology Limited, ShawburyGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Howell BA, Sun W (2018) Biobased plasticizers from tartaric acid, an abundantly available, renewable material. Ind Eng Chem Res 57:15234–15242Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Howell BA, Lazar ST (2019) Biobased plasticizers from carbohydrate-derived 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan. Ind Eng Chem Res 58:1222–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shah BL, Shertukde VV (2003) Effect of plasticizers on mechanical, electrical, permanence, and thermal properties of poly(vinyl chloride). J Appl Polym Sci 90:3278–3284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suarez Palacios OY, Narváez Rincón PC, Corriou J-P et al (2014) Multicriteria optimization of production conditions for a new phthalate-free PVC plasticizer. J Ind Eng Chem 20:1985–1992. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jaakkola JJK, Knight TL (2008) The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 116:845–853. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wypych G (2013) Handbook of plasticizers. William Andrew, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jia P, Zhang M, Hu L et al (2015) Synthesis and application of phosphaphenanthrene groups-containing soybean-oil-based plasticizer. Ind Crops Prod 76:590–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gama NV, Santos R, Godinho B et al (2019) Methyl acetyl ricinoleate as polyvinyl chloride plasticizer. J Polym Environ. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fenollar O, García D, Sánchez L et al (2009) Optimization of the curing conditions of PVC plastisols based on the use of an epoxidized fatty acid ester plasticizer. Eur Polym J 45:2674–2684. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yin B, Aminlashgari N, Yang X, Hakkarainen M (2014) Glucose esters as biobased PVC plasticizers. Eur Polym J 58:34–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mehta B, Kathalewar M, Sabnis A (2015) Cyclic carbonated soyabean oil as plasticizer for PVC for replacing di-octyl phthalate. J Polym Mater 32:17–29Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dutta K, Das S, Kundu PP (2014) Epoxidized esters of palm kernel oil as an effective plasticizer for PVC: a study of mechanical properties and effect of processing conditions. Int Polym Process 29:495–506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jia P, Xia H, Tang K et al (2018) Plasticizers derived from biomass resources: a short review. Polymers 10:1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen J, Li K, Wang Y et al (2017) Synthesis and properties of a novel environmental epoxidized glycidyl ester of ricinoleic acetic ester plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride). Polymers 9:640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mehta B, Kathalewar M, Sabnis A (2014) Diester based on castor oil fatty acid as plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride). J Appl Polym Sci 131:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jia P, Zhang M, Hu L et al (2015) Synthesis and application of environmental castor oil based polyol ester plasticizers for poly(vinyl chloride). ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:2187–2193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Feng G, Hu L, Ma Y et al (2018) An efficient bio-based plasticizer for poly (vinyl chloride) from waste cooking oil and citric acid: synthesis and evaluation in PVC films. J Clean Prod 189:334–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shafie MH, Samsudin D, Yusof R, Gan C-Y (2018) Characterization of bio-based plastic made from a mixture of Momordica charantia bioactive polysaccharide and choline chloride/glycerol based deep eutectic solvent. Int J Biol Macromol 118:1183–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang J, Liu X, Jia Z et al (2018) Highly crystalline polyesters synthesized from furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA): potential bio-based engineering plastic. Eur Polym J 109:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ghatge ND, Mahajan SS, Vaidyas SV (1983) Secondary plasticizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) epoxidized esters. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 10:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Daniels PH (2005) Hydrocarbon secondary plasticizers as functional additives in flexible PVC compounds. J Vinyl Addit Technol 11:76–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sun J, Tong X, Yu L, Wan J (2016) An efficient and sustainable production of triacetin from the acetylation of glycerol using magnetic solid acid catalysts under mild conditions. Catal Today 264:115–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Authayanun S, Arpornwichanop A, Paengjuntuek W, Assabumrungrat S (2010) Thermodynamic study of hydrogen production from crude glycerol autothermal reforming for fuel cell applications. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:6617–6623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu X, Jensen PR, Workman M (2012) Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus. Bioresour Technol 104:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu Y, Koh CMJ, Ji L (2011) Bioconversion of crude glycerol to glycolipids in Ustilago maydis. Bioresour Technol 102:3927–3933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ayoub M, Abdullah AZ (2012) Critical review on the current scenario and significance of crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel industry towards more sustainable renewable energy industry. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:2671–2686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anand P, Yadav S, Kumar V et al (2010) A path to economic viability for the biodiesel industry: production of 1,3-propanediol from crude glycerol. J Biotechnol 150:370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wolfson A, Litvak G, Dlugy C et al (2009) Employing crude glycerol from biodiesel production as an alternative green reaction medium. Ind Crops Prod 30:78–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sricharoenchaikul V, Atong D (2012) Fuel gas generation from thermochemical conversion of crude glycerol mixed with biomass wastes. Energy Procedia 14:1286–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ljungberg N, Andersson T, Wesslén B (2003) Film extrusion and film weldability of poly(lactic acid) plasticized with triacetine and tributyl citrate. J Appl Polym Sci 88:3239–3247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ye J, Liu S, Xiang J et al (2013) Preparation and application of triglyceride plasticizers for poly(vinyl chloride). J Appl Polym Sci 129:1915–1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Coltro L, Pitta JB, Madaleno E (2013) Performance evaluation of new plasticizers for stretch PVC films. Polym Test 32:272–278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    ISO 527-1:1993 (1993) Determination of tensile propertiesGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    ISO 1133-1:2011 (2011) Determination of the melt mass-flow rate (MFR) and melt volume-flow rate (MVR) of thermoplasticsGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pocius AV (2012) Adhesion and adhesives technology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    ISO 868:2003 (2003) Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (shore hardness)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Unar IN, Soomro SA, Aziz S (2010) Effect of various additives on the physical properties of polyvinylchloride resin. Pak J Anal Environ Chem 11:44Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shenoy AV, Saini DR, Nadkarni VM (1983) Rheology of poly(vinyl chloride) formulations from melt flow index measurements. J Vinyl Addit Technol 5:192–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jia P-Y, Bo C-Y, Zhang L-Q et al (2015) Synthesis of castor oil based plasticizers containing flame retarded group and their application in poly (vinyl chloride) as secondary plasticizer. J Ind Eng Chem 28:217–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rusli A, Mohamad MZ, Rashid AA (2016) Miscibility and migration ability of triacetin as an alternative plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride compounds. J Polym Mater 33:657–665Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Senake Perera M, Ishiaku U, Ishak ZM (2001) Characterisation of PVC/NBR and PVC/ENR50 binary blends and PVC/ENR50/NBR ternary blends by DMA and solid state NMR. Eur Polym J 37:167–178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gil N, Saska M, Negulescu I (2006) Evaluation of the effects of biobased plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride). J Appl Polym Sci 102:1366–1373. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Feldman D (1984) Degradation and stabilisation of PVC. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Starnes WH (2002) Structural and mechanistic aspects of the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride). Prog Polym Sci 27:2133–2170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McNeill IC, Memetea L, Cole WJ (1995) A study of the products of PVC thermal degradation. Polym Degrad Stab 49:181–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    da Silva MA, Adeodato Vieira MG, Gomes Maçumoto AC, Beppu MM (2011) Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and natural rubber films plasticized with a natural polymeric plasticizer obtained through polyesterification of rice fatty acid. Polym Test 30:478–484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Janajreh I, Alshrah M, Zamzam S (2015) Mechanical recycling of PVC plastic waste streams from cable industry: a case study. Sustain Cities Soc 18:13–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials and Department of ChemistryUniversity of Aveiro – Campus SantiagoAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Sapec-Química SAVila Nova de GaiaPortugal
  3. 3.CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials and Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão de ÁguedaÁguedaPortugal

Personalised recommendations