Advertisement

Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1043–1053 | Cite as

Environmentally Friendly Composites from Seabass Scale and Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Waste

  • Nathawut Phreecha
  • Watchanida ChinpaEmail author
Original paper
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

A green biocomposite was prepared from a matrix of gelatin, derived from waste seabass scale, reinforced with microfibers isolated from empty fruit bunch (EFB). The extracted gelatin (GE) had a protein content of 82.94 ± 0.3%. The EFB microfibers (M-EFB) had a diameter of 9.5 ± 2.0 µm and a cellulose content of 85.7 ± 0.6%. The effect of M-EFB contents of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% (w/w) on the properties of the gelatin-based films was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the good dispersion of the M-EFB and strong interfacial adhesion between the microfibers and the matrix. This strong interaction significantly increased the mechanical strength of the gelatin-based films. Moreover, water vapor permeability, moisture content and swelling ratio were reduced and biodegradation of the films in soil was slowed down. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stability of the biofilms was not significantly affected by M-EFB loading up to 15% (w/w). These results indicated that GE/M-EFB biocomposites fabricated from these waste by-products could provide an alternative green candidate material for packaging film.

Keywords

Fish scale gelatin Oil palm empty fruit bunch Biocomposite Mechanical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by Faculty of Science Research Fund (Contract Nos. 158005), Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University. We also acknowledge Mr. Thomas Coyne for his kind assistance in editing the English.

References

  1. 1.
    Bergo P, Sobral PJA (2007) Food Hydrocolloids 21:1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang W, Wang Z, Liu Y, Li N, Wang W, Gao (2012) Mater Res Bull 47:2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chiou BS, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Bechtel PJ, Jafri H, Narayan R, Imam SH, Glenn GM, Ort WJ (2008) Eur Polym J 44:3748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Panzavolta S, Bracci B, Gualandi C, Focarete ML, Treossi E, Kouroupis-Agalou K, Rubini K, Bosia F, Brely L, Pugno NM, Palermo V, Bigi A (2014) Carbon 78:566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Farahnaky A, Dadfar SMM, Shahbazi M (2014) J Food Eng 122:78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ran J, Hu J, Chen L, Shen X, Tong H (2017) Polym Compos 38:1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berthet MA, Angellier-Coussy H, Guillard V, Gontard N (2016) J Appl Polym Sci 133:42528.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.42528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chiellini E, Cinelli P, Fernandes EG, Kenawy ERS, Lazzeri A (2001) Biomacromol 2:806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shubhra QTH, Alam AKMM, Beg MDH (2011) Mater Lett 65:333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zheng X, Liu J, Pei Y, Li J, Tang K (2012) Composites A 43:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Santos TM, Souza Filho MDSM, Caceres CA, Rosa MF, Morais JPS, Pinto AMB, Azeredo HMC (2014) Food Hydrocolloids 41:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lehman N, Phengthai R, Chinpa W (2018) J Polym Environ 26:1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chavalparit O, Rulkens WH, Mol APJ, Khaodhair S (2006) Environ Dev Sustain 8:271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Phitthayaphinant P, Nissapa A (2010) Proceeding of the 7th IMT-GT UNINET and the 3rd international PSU-UNS conferences on bioscience, Songkhla, pp 82–86Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Narapakdeesakul D, Sridach W, Wittaya T (2013) Prog Org Coat 76:482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    John MJ, Francis B, Varughese KT, Thomas S (2008) Composites A 39:352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Norul Izani MA, Paridah MT, Anwar UMK, Mohd Nor MY, H’ng PS (2013) Composites B 45:1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moshiul Alam AKM, Beg MDH, Reddy Prasad DM, Khan MR, Mina MF (2012) Composites A 43:1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mohamad Haafiz MK, Eichhorn SJ, Hassan A, Jawaid M (2013) Carbohydr Polym 93:628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xiang LY, Mohammed MAP, Baharuddin AS (2016) Carbohydr Polym 148:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nazir MS, Wahjoedi BA, Yussof AW, Abdullah MA (2013) BioResources 8:2161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abdullah MA, Nazir MS, Raza MR, Wahjoedi BA, Yussof AW (2016) J Clean Pro 126:686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sha XM, Tu ZC, Liu W, Wang H, Shi Y, Huang T, Man ZZ (2014) Food Hydrocoll 36:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    AOAC (2012) Official methods of analysis, 19th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laemmli UK (1970) Nature 227(5259):680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Updegraff DM (1969) Anal Biochem 32(3):420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Technical Association of the Pulp & Paper Industry Test Method T222 om-112012Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wise LE, Murphy M, D’Addieco AA (1946) Pap Trade J 122:35Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Segal L, Creely JJ, Martin AE, Conrad CM (1959) Text Res J 29(10):786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shankar S, Reddy JP, Rhim JW (2015) Int J Biol Macromol 81:267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shiku Y, Hamaguchi PY, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Tanaka M (2004) Food Chem 86:493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McHugh TH, Bustillos RA, Krochta JM (1993) J Food Sci 58:899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martucci JF, Ruseckaite RA (2009) Polym Degrad Stab 94:1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wangtueai S, Noomhorm A (2009) LWT-Food Sci Technol 42:825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weng W, Zheng H, Su W (2014) Food Hydrocolloids 41:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Akagündüz Y, Mosquera M, Giménez B, Alemán A, Montero P, Gómez-Guillén MC (2014) LWT - Food Science Technol 55:579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nagarajan M, Benjakul S, Prodpran T, Songtipya P, Kishimura H (2012) Food Hydrocoll 29:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jackson M, Choo LP, Watson PH, Halliday WC, Mantsch HH (1995) Biochim Biophys Acta 1270:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Palamae S, Dechatiwongse P, Choorita W, Chisti Y, Prasertsane P (2017) Carbohydr Polym 155:491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khalil HPSA, Ismail H, Rozman HD, Ahmad MN (2001) Eur Polym J 37:1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karimi S, Tahir PM, Karimi A, Dufresne A, Abdulkhan A (2014) Carbohydr Polym 101:878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Abraham E, Deepa B, Pothan LA, Jacob M, Thomas S, Cvelbar U, Anandjiwala R (2011) Carbohydr Polym 86:1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Md.Yunos NSH, Baharuddin AS, Md. Yunos KF, Naim MN, Nishida H (2012) BioResources 7:5983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Salehudin MH, Salleh E, Mamat SNH, Muhamad II (2014) Procedia Chem 9:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bertuzzi MA, Castro Vidaurre EF, Armada M, Gottifredi JC (2007) J Food Eng 80:972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nur Hanani ZA, McNamara J, Roos YH, Kerry JP (2013) Food Hydrocoll 31:264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Azeredo HMC, Mattoso LHC, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Filho GC, Munford ML, Wood D, Mchugh TH (2010) J Food Sci 75:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Khan A, Khan RA, Salmieri S, Le Tien C, Riedl B, Bouchard J, Chauve G, Tan V, Kamal MR, Lacroix M (2012) Carbohydr Polym 90:1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Benbettaïeb N, Karbowiak T, Brachais CH, Debeaufort F (2016) Food Chem 195:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mu C, Guo J, Li X, Lin W, Li D (2012) Food Hydrocoll 27:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ahmad M, Hani NM, Nirmal NP, Fazial FF, Mohtar NF, Romli SR (2015) Prog Org Coat 84:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boudria A, Hammoui Y, Adjeroud N, Djerrada N, Madani K (2018) Adv Powder Technol 29:1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Li Q, Zhou J, Zhang L (2009) J Polym Sci B 47:1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    De Rosa IM, Iannoni A, Kenny JM, Puglia D, Santulli C, Sarasini F, Terenzi A (2011) Polym Compos 32:1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Niazi MBK, Jahan Z, Berg SS, Gregersen ØW (2017) Carbohydr Polym 177:258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sanhawong W, Banhalee P, Boonsang S, Kaewpirom S (2017) Ind Crops Prod 108:756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Afshar S, Baniasadi H (2018) Int J Biol Macromol 109:1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of SciencePrince of Songkla UniversityHat YaiThailand

Personalised recommendations