Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 3957–3966 | Cite as

Fabrication of Natural Fiber Composites Consisting of Osage Orange Seed flour Reinforced with Non-woven Hemp Mats

  • Brent TisseratEmail author
Original Paper


Natural fiber composites (NFC) were fabricated using a matrix consisting of an aqueous slurry of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. family Moraceae) seed meal (OOSM) (50, 75 or 100 g L− 1) reinforced with non-woven hemp mats (450, 650, 800, 1000, 1200, or 1350 g m− 2 surface densities). OOSM behaves as a thermoset adhesive/resin similar to soy flours. Non-woven mats of 7.6 cm W × 17.8 cm L of various surface densities were soaked in aqueous slurries for 30 min under vacuum and then directly hot pressed at 185 °C and 4.3 MPa for 4:30 min. NFCs matrix:reinforcement percentages varied depending on the surface density of the hemp mat employed. NFCs were evaluated for their mechanical, physical and dimensional stability properties. The OOSM slurry matrix was found to be as effective as matrices generated from soy flour or soy protein isolate slurries. The influence of various temperatures for processing was also evaluated.


Bio-based composites Flexural properties Tensile properties Soy flour Soy protein isolate Surface roughness Thermoset 



The author is grateful for the Osage orange seeds by Dr. Alan Gravett of Hedgeapple Biotech, Bloomington, IL and technical assistance provided by Nicholas Montesdeoca and David Kukla of the USDA-ARS-NCAUR. Mention of a trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research ServiceUnited States Department of AgriculturePeoriaUSA

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