Biological Macromolecule Composite Films Made from Sagu Starch and Flour/Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Blends Processed by Blending/Thermo Molding
- 14 Downloads
Non-conventional starch sources (starch and flour) obtained from sagu (Canna edulis Kerr) rhizomes grown in the Venezuelan Amazon were used as biological macromolecule matrices. Biological macromolecule composite films prepared from sagu starch and flour/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends were then obtained by blending/thermo molding. The use of flours as a rich source of starch has attracted much attention as they are cheaper than starch, thus making them commercially more competitive. The PCL-containing films proved to be less stable in an alkaline medium and less dense (0.60–0.66 g/cm3), and were also thinner (1.15–1.17 mm), rougher, more crystalline (20.5–27.1%) and opaque (1.45–1.52) than the films without added PCL. Films made from the flour/PCL blend showed a greater phase separation than the starch/PCL films. The use of flour as a starchy source is interesting. However, the results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water activity suggest that the films prepared from sagu starch-glycerol had stronger hydrogen bonding interactions than those made from flour-glycerol. This led to the sagu starch-based film being less susceptible to moisture and more stable under alkaline conditions.
KeywordsBiological macromolecules Microstructure Non-conventional starches Physicochemical properties Polymer composites
The authors would like to thank the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Postdoctoral fellowship internal PDTS-Resolution 2417), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP) for financial support. Dr. Mirian Carmona-Rodríguez for their valuable contribution. Thanks also to the Institute of Food Science and Technology (ICTA) of the Central University of Venezuela (UCV), especially Jusneydy Suniaga, for managing the purchase of the rhizomes from the Venezuelan Amazon, as well as obtaining isolated starch and flour, and the determination of water activity and color parameters of the films. Many thanks also to Dr. Gema González and M.Sc. Antonio Monsalve of Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC) for allowing the M.Sc. Kelvia Álvarez to carry out the acquisition of AFM images in her laboratory.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
The author declares no conflict of interest.
- 10.Pacheco E (2001) Evaluación nutricional de sopas deshidratadas a base de harina de plátano verde. Digestibilidad in vitro de almidón, Acta Científica Venez 52:278–282. http://acta.ivic.gob.ve/52-4/articulo6.pdf
- 11.Mollega Mainsard IP (2008) Caracterización y biodegradación de mezclas de policaprolactona y poliácido láctico con almidón de yuca. Universidad Simón Bolívar. http://18.104.22.168/tesis/000144538.pdf
- 12.Maliger RB, Halley PJ (2014) Reactive extrusion for thermoplastic starch-polymer blends. In: Halley PJ, Avérous LR (eds) Starch polymers. Elsevier, Burlington, pp 291–317 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53730-0.00030-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Valencia MT, Rodríguez (2001) Efecto del tratamiento de preservación por depresión e la actividad acuosa en la calidad del alga. Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
- 18.ASTM D1925-70 (1988) Test method for yellowness index of plastics. http://www.astm.org/Standards/D1925.htm
- 23.Batista Reis LC, Oliveira de Souza C, Alves da Silva JB, Martins AC, Larroza Nunes I, Druzian JI (2015) Active biocomposites of cassava starch: the effect of yerba mate extract and mango pulp as antioxidant additives on the properties and the stability of a packaged product. Food Bioprod Process 94:382–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2014.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Mitrus M (2005) Glass transition temperature of thermoplastic starches. Int Agrophys 19:237–241. http://www.old.international-agrophysics.org/artykuly/international_agrophysics/IntAgr_2005_19_3_237.pdf