Advertisement

Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 3202–3215 | Cite as

Effects of Compatibilizer and Thermoplastic Starch (TPS) Concentration on Morphological, Rheological, Tensile, Thermal and Moisture Sorption Properties of Plasticized Polylactic Acid/TPS Blends

  • Mohammad Reza Abdollahi Moghaddam
  • Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi
  • Yousef Jahani
Original Paper

Abstract

The blends of polylactic acid plasticized with acetyl tributyl citrate (P-PLA) and thermoplastic wheat starch (TPS) were prepared by a co-rotating twin screw extruder and the effect of maleic anhydride grafted PLA (PLA-g-MA) content as reactive compatibilizer on blends compatibility through morphological, rheological and tensile properties of the blends was investigated. Considerable improvement in properties of P-PLA/TPS (70/30 w/w) blend with incorporating the optimum PLA-g-MA content of 4 phr was achieved as this blend exhibited better morphological and rheological properties with an increase by 158 and 276% in tensile strength and elongation at break, respectively, compared to the uncompatibilized blend. Also the thermal stability and moisture sorption properties of the blends as effected by TPS content were studied. Decreasing in thermal stability and increasing in equilibrium moisture content of the blends were observed with progressively increasing of TPS content. For prediction the moisture sorption behaviour of blends with various TPS contents at different relative humidity, the moisture sorption isotherm data were modeled by GAB (Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer) model.

Keywords

Compatibilization Packaging Polylactic acid Thermoplastic starch 

References

  1. 1.
    Yokesahachart C, Yoksan R (2011) Effect of amphiphilic molecules on characteristics and tensile properties of thermoplastic starch and its blends with poly(lactic acid). Carbohydr Polym 83:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tester RF, Karkalas J (2002) The effects of environmental conditions on the structural features and physico-chemical properties of starches. Starch 53:513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liao HT, Wu CS (2008) New biodegradable blends prepared from polylactide, titanium tetraisopropylate, and starch. J Appl Polym Sci 108:2280–2289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tachaphiboonsap S, Jarukumjorn K (2013) Mechanical, Thermal, and Morphological Properties of Thermoplastic Starch/Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends. In: Pure and Applied Chemistry International Conference 2013 (PACCON 2013Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tang SW, Zou P, Xiong HG, Tang HL (2008) Effect of nano-SiO2 on the performance of starch/polyvinyl alcohol blend films. Carbohydr Polym 72:521–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Souza R, Andrade C (2002) Investigation of the gelatinization and extrusion processes of corn starch. Adv Polym Tech 21:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stepto R (2003) The processing of starch as a thermoplastic. Macromol Symp 201:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Teixeira EM, Pasquini D, Curvel AAS, Corradini E, Belgacem MN, Dufresne A (2009) Cassava bagasses cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym 78:422–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Avella M, De Vliegar JJ, Errico ME, Fischer S, Vacca P, Volpe MG (2005) Biodegradable starch/clay nanocomposite films for food packaging applications. Food Chem 93:467–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Forssell PM, Mikkila JM, Moates GK, Parker R (1997) Phase and glass transition behavior of concentrated barley starch-glycerol-water mixtures, a model for thermoplastic starch. Carbohydr Polym 34:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma XF, Yu JG, Wan JJ (2006) Urea and ethanolamine as a mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch. Carbohydr Polym 64:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lorcks J (1998) Properties and applications of compostable starch-based plastic material. Polym Degrad Stab 59:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mugnozza GS, Schettini E, Vox G, Malinconico M, Immirzi B, Pagliara S (2006) Mechanical properties decay and morphological behavior of biodegradable films for agricultural mulching in real scale experiment. Polym Degrad Stab 91:2801–2808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dole P, Joly C, Espuche E, Alric I, Gontard N (2004) Gas transport properties of starch based films. Carbohydr Polym 58:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iovino R, Zullo R, Rao MA, Cassar L, Gianfreda L (2008) Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid)/starch/coir biocomposites under controlled composting conditions. Polym Degrad Stab 93:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arboleda GA, Montilla CE, Villada HS, Verona GA (2015) Obtaining a flexible film elaborated from cassava thermoplastic starch and polylactic acid. Int J Polym Sci. (Article ID 627268)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu W, Misra M, Askeland P, Drzal LT, Mohanty AK (2005) ‘Green’ composites from soy based plastic and pineapple leaf fiber: fabrication and properties evaluation. Polymer 46:2710–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang Y, Yuan X, Liu Q, Hrymak A (2012) The effect of polymeric chain extenders on physical properties of thermoplastic starch and polylactic acid blends. J Polym Environ 20:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li G, Favis BD (2010) Morphology development and interfacial interactions in polycaprolactone/thermoplastic-starch blends. Macromol Chem Phys 211:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ren J, Fu H, Ren T, Yuan W (2009) Preparation, characterization and properties of binary and ternary blends with thermoplastic starch, poly(lactic acid) and poly(butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate). Carbohydr Polym 77:576–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lai SM, Don TM, Huang YC (2006) Preparation and properties of biodegradable thermoplastic starch/poly(hydroxy butyrate) blends. J Appl Polym Sci 100:2371–2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Averous L, Fauconnier N, Moro L, Fringants C (1999) Blends of thermoplastic starch and polyesteramide: processing and properties. J Appl Polym Sci 76:1117–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Detyothin S, Selke S, Narayan R, Rubino M, Auras R (2015) Effects of molecular weight and grafted maleic anhydride of functionalized polylactic acid used in reactive compatibilized binary and ternary blends of polylactic acid and thermoplastic cassava starch. J Appl Polym Sci 132:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cheng HY, Yang YJ, Li SC, Hong JY, Jang GW (2015) Modification and extrusion coating of polylactic acid films. J Appl Polym Sci. (Article ID 42472)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sanyang ML, Sapuan SM (2015) Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application. J Food Sci Technol 52:6445–6454CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huneault MA, Li H (2007) Morphology and properties of compatibilized polylactide/thermoplastic starch blends. Polymer 48:270–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nampoothiri KM, Nair NR, John RP (2010) An overview of the recent developments in polylactide (PLA) research. Bioresour Technol 101:8493–8501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ho KG, Pometto AL, Hinz N (1999) Effects of temperature and relative humidity on polylactic acid plastic degradation. J Environ Polym Degrad 7:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pranamuda H, Tokiwa Y, Tanaka H (1997) Polylactide degradation by an Amycolatopsis sp.. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1637–1640PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang N, Yu JG, Ma XF (2007) Preparation and characterization of thermoplastic starch/PLA blends by one-step reactive extrusion. Polym Int 56:1440–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang JF, Sun X (2004) Mechanical properties of Poly(lactic acid)/starch composites compatibilized by maleic anhydride. Biomacromol 5:1446–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lomellini P, Matos M, Favis BD (1996) Interfacial modification of polymer blends-the emulsification curve: 2. Predicting the critical concentration of interfacial modifier from geometrical considerations. Polymer 37:5689–5694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tachaphiboonsap S, Jarukumjorn K (2013) Toughness and compatibility improvement of thermoplastic starch/Poly(lactic acid) blends. Adv Mat Res 747:67–71Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jiang WR, Bao RY, Yang W, Liu ZY, Xie BH, Yang MB (2014) Morphology, interfacial and mechanical properties of polylactide/poly(ethylene terephthalate glycol) blends compatibilized by polylactide-g-maleic anhydride. Mater Design 59:524–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Muller CMO, Pires ATN, Yamashita F (2013) Characterization of thermoplastic Starch/Poly(Lactic Acid) blends obtained by extrusion and thermopressing. J Braz Chem Soc 23:426–434Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Detyothin S, Selke SEM, Narayan R, Rubino M, Auras R (2013) Reactive functionalization of poly(lactic acid), PLA: effects of the reactive modifier, initiator and processing conditions on the final grafted maleic anhydride content and molecular weight of PLA. Polym Degrad Stab 98:2697–2708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Spiess WEL, Wolf WF (1983) The results of the COST 90 project on water activity. In: Escher F, Hallstrom B, Meffert MS, Spiess WEL, Voss G (eds) Physical properties of foods. Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    De Roover B, Sclavons M, Carlier V, Devaux J, Legras R, Momtaz A (1995) Molecular characterization of maleic anhydride-functionalized polypropylene. J Polym Sci Part A 33:829–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mani R, Bhattacharya M, Tang J (1999) Functionalization of polyesters with maleic anhydride by reactive extrusion. J Polym Sci Part A 37:1693–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Larocca NM, Ito EN, Rios CT, Pessan LA, Bretas RES, Hage E (2010) Effect of PBT molecular weight and reactive compatibilization on the dispersed-phase coalescence of PBT/SAN blends. J Polym Sci Polym Phys 48:2274–2287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Teamsinsungvon A (2011) Physical properties of poly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blends and their composites. Master’s Thesis, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rodriguez-Gonzalez FJ, Ramsay BA, Favis BD (2004) Rheological and thermal properties of thermoplastic starch with high glycerol content. Carbohydr Polym 58:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bousmina M (1999) Effect of interfacial tension on linear viscoelastic behavior of immiscible polymer blends. Rheol Acta 38:251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    John B, Varughese K, Ommen Z, Thomas S (2010) Melt rheology of HDPE/EVA blends: the effects of blend ratio, compatibilization, and dynamic vulcanization. Polym Eng Sci 50:665–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aravind I, Ahn KH, Ranganathaiah C, Thomas S (2009) Rheology, morphology, mechanical properties and free volume of Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends. Industr Eng Chem Res 48:9942–9951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Teyssandier F, Cassagnau P, Gérard JF, Mignard N (2011) Reactive compatibilization of PA12/plasticized starch blends: towards improved mechanical properties. Eur Polym J 47:2361–2371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vasques CT, Domenech SC, Severgnini VLS, Belmonte LAO, Soldi MS, Barreto PLM, Soldi V (2007) Effect of thermal treatment on the stability and structure of maize starch cast films. Starch/Stärke 59:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Romero-Bastida CA, Bello-Pérez LA, Velazquez G, Alvarez-Ramirez J (2015) Effect of the addition order and amylose content on mechanical, barrier and structural properties of films made with starch and montmorillonite. Carbohyd Polym 127:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aouada FA, Mattoso LHC, Longo E (2011) New strategies in the preparation of exfoliated thermoplastic starch-montmorillonite nanocomposites. Ind Crops Products 34:1502–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Celebi H, Gunes E (2017) Combined effect of a plasticizer and carvacrol and thymol on the mechanical, thermal, morphological properties of poly(lactic acid). J Appl Polym Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/APP.45895 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arrieta MP, Fortunati E, Dominici F, Lopez J, Kenny JM (2015) Bionanocomposite films based on plasticized PLA–PHB/cellulose nanocrystal blends. Carbohydr Polym 121:265–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Petinakis E, Liu X, Yu L, Way C, Sangwan P, Dean K, Bateman S, Edward G (2010) Biodegradation and thermal decomposition of poly(lactic acid)-based materials reinforced by hydrophilic fillers. Polym Degrad Stab 95:1704–1707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shi Q, Chen C, Gao L, Jiao L, Xu H, Guo W (2011) Physical and degradation properties of binary or ternary blends composed of poly (lactic acid), thermoplastic starch and GMA grafted POE. Polym Degrad Stab 96:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brunauer S, Deming LS, Deming WE, Troller E (1940) On the theory of Van der Waals adsorption of gases. J Am Chem Soc 62:1723–1732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mali S, Sakanaka LS, Yamashita F, Grossmann MVE (2005) Water sorption and mechanical properties of cassava starch films and their relation to plasticizing effect. Carbohydr Polym 60:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Diab T, Biladeris CG, Gerasopoulos D, Sfakiotakis E (2001) Physicochemical properties and application of pullulan edible films and coatings in fruit preservation. J Sci Food Agric 81:988–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zimeri JE, Kokini JL (2002) The effect of moisture content on the crystalinity and glass transition temperature of inulin. Carbohydr Polym 48:299–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lewisci PP (1997) The applicability of the GAB model to food water sorption isotherms. Int J Food Sci Tech 32:553–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Food Engineering, Department of Food Science and TechnologyFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Plastics, Faculty of Polymer ProcessingIran Polymer & Petrochemical InstituteTehranIran

Personalised recommendations