Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 2374–2391 | Cite as

Active and Intelligent Films Made from Starchy Sources/Blackberry Pulp

  • Tomy J. Gutiérrez
Original Paper


Functional, active and intelligent films were prepared from biopolymeric matrices (plantain starch and pre-gelatinized plantain flour) with and without the addition of a natural filler (blackberry pulp) using the casting methodology. A thorough examination of the physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the both the matrices used and the developed films was then carried out. The films developed from matrices incorporating the blackberry pulp were more amorphous, thicker, less sensitive to moisture, and with higher melting temperatures than the films made without this natural filler. The degree of substitution, average molecular weight and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the films made with blackberry pulp suggest that the starch chains were cross-linked. This is probably because the citric acid contained in the pulp functions as a cross-linking agent. Films with added blackberry pulp responded to changes in pH, i.e. were pH-sensitive, and also showed antimicrobial activity especially against Escherichia coli. In general, the addition of blackberry pulp improved the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the films developed due to cross-linking, as well as increasing their antioxidant activity.


Crosslinking Films Functional polymers Microstructure Thermoplastics 



The author would like to thank Dr. Mirian Carmona-Rodríguez, Dr. Judith Sánchez Bruguera, Dr. María B. Raymúndez, Dr. Aura Cova, Prof. Alicia Mariela Rincón and Prof. Edgar del Carpio.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento Químico Analítico, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad Central de VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela
  2. 2.Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Central de VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela

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