Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 647–658 | Cite as

Polyols and Rigid Polyurethane Foams from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid

  • Mihail IonescuEmail author
  • Xianmei Wan
  • Nikola Bilić
  • Zoran S. Petrović
Original Paper


Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a natural aromatic oil consisting of a mixture of phenolic structures with a carboxyl group in ortho position and substituted in meta position with a hydrocarbon chain of 15 carbon atoms. The major component of CNSL is anacardic acid (90 %), which is easily decarboxylated to cardanol by distillation. The present work describes the synthesis of new biobased Mannich polyols for rigid polyurethane foams in two steps: synthesis of Mannich bases by reacting phenolic ring of cardanol with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine followed by alkoxylation reactions. The polyols were characterized by wet methods (hydroxyl numbers, viscosity, acid value, density, water content, iodine value etc.), spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR) and by Gel Permeation Chromatography. The Mannich polyols from cardanol are excellent replacements for petrochemical derived Mannich polyols based on nonyl phenol. Cardanol-based polyols were used successfully for the preparation of rigid polyurethane foams of good physical–mechanical and fireproofing properties.


Cashew nut shell liquid Mannich polyols Rigid polyurethane foams 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mihail Ionescu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xianmei Wan
    • 1
  • Nikola Bilić
    • 1
  • Zoran S. Petrović
    • 1
  1. 1.Kansas Polymer Research CenterPittsburg State UniversityPittsburgUSA

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