Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 447–484 | Cite as

Ionic Liquids as Environmentally Friendly Solvents in Macromolecules Chemistry and Technology, Part I

Original Paper

Abstract

With the increasing emphasis on the environment and the need to find environmentally friendly solvent systems, ionic liquids (IL)s have been emerging as promising green solvents to replace conventional solvents in recent years. They possess unique properties such as nonvolatility, low toxicity, ease of handling, nonflammability and high ionic conductivity; thus they have received much attention as green media for various chemistry processes. This report provides an extensive overview of use of ILs in polymers chemistry and technology.

Keywords

Ionic liquids Green chemistry Polymers synthesis and modifications 

Abbreviations

[AMIM][Cl]

1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

[B4P][Cl]

Tetrabutylphosphonium chloride

[BDMIM][PF6]

1-Butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[BIEMIM][PF6]

1-(2-Bromoisobutyryloxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[BIM][BF4]

1-Butylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[BIM][TSA]

1-Butylimidazolium p-toluenesulfonate

[BIM][NO3]

1-Butylimidazolium nitrate

[BMIM][BF4]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[BMIM][Cl]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

[BMIM][AlCl4]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate

[BMIM][SnCl3]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorostannate

[BMIM][H2PO4]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogen phosphate

[BMIM][HSO4]

1-Butyl-1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate

[BMIM][MDEGSO4]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylene glycol monomethyl ether sulfate

[BMIM][N(CN)2]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide

[BMIM][OctSO4]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate

[BMIM][PF6]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[BMIM][Tf2N]

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[BMMor1,4][BF4]

N-butyl-N-methyl morpholinium tetrafluoroborate

[BMPyrr][Tf2N]

N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[BPyr][Cl]

N-butylpyridinium chloride

[BPyr][AlCl4]

N-butylpyridiunium tetrachloroaluminate

[Bu4N][Br]

Tetrabutylammonium bromide

[OTf]

Trifluoromethanesulfonate

[C18MIM][Cl]

1-Octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

[CnMIM][PF6]

1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[CnPyr][Tf2N]

N-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[DEME][Tf2N]

N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[C12MIM][BF4]

1-Dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[EDMIM][Tf2N]

1-Ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[EIM][TFA]

1-Ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate

[EMIM]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium

[EMIM][AlCl4]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate

[EMIM][OTf]

1-Ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate

[EMIM][HexSO4]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexyl sulfate

[EMIM][I]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide

[EMIM][Tf2N]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesul-fonyl)amide

[EMIM][TSA]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate

[EMIM][EtSO4]

1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate

[EtNH3][NO3]

Ethylammonium nitrate

[HMIM][BF4]

1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[HPyr][Tf2N]

N-hexylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[IM][BF4]

Imidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[Me3S][Tf2N]

Trimethylsulfonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

[MMIM]Me2PO4]

1,3-Dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate

[OMIM][BF4]

1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

[OMIM][PF6]

1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[PF6]

Hexafluorophosphate

[PMIM][PF6]

1-Propyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

[Tf2N]

Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

AFM

Atom force microscopy

AN

Acrylonitrile

ANI

Aniline

ATR-FTIR

Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

ATRP

Atom transfer radical polymerization

BA

Butyl acrylate

BLG-NCA

γ-Benzyl-l-glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride

BMA

n-butyl methacrylate

BPO

Benzoyl peroxide

CAL-B

Candida antarctica lipase B

ChMI

N-cyclohexylmaleimide

CTA

Chain transfer agent

DCM

Dichloromethane

DPHLi

Diphenylhexyl lithium

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

DSSC

Dye sensitised solar cells

EC

Ethylene carbonate

EOX

3-Ethyl-3-hydroxymethyloxetane

EPN-Br

Ethyl-2-bromopropionate

EQCM

Electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance

[Et4N][BF4]

Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate

GMA

Glycidyl methacrylate

GTP

Group transfer polymerization

HBOB

Bis(oxalato)boric acid

HexT

3-Hexylthiophene

HPMA

2-Hydroxypropyl methacrylate

IA

Isophthalic acid

ILs

Ionic liquids

ITO

Indium tin oxide

kp

Rate constant of propagation

kt

Rate constant of termination

MA

Methyl acrylate

MALDI-TOF

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight

MAN

Methacrylonitrile

MDOB

1,2-Methylenedioxybenzene

MeT

3-Methylthiophene

MMA

Methyl methacrylate

Mn

Number-average molecular weight

Mr

Relative molecular mass

MnMA

Menthyl methacrylate

MITO

Modified indium tin oxide

MW

Molecular weight

MWD

Molecular weight distribution

NBMI

N-butylmaleimide

NMP

Nitroxide-mediated polymerization

NPhMI

N-phenylmaleimide

OcT

3-Octylthiophene

PAN

Poly(acrylonitrile)

PANI

Polyaniline

PBMA

Poly(n-butylmethacrylate)

PClT

Poly(3-chlorothiophene)

PD

Polydispersity

PDI

Polydispersity index

PEDOT

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

PEO

Poly(ethylene oxide)

PET

Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

PFPT

Poly(3-(4-fluorophenyl) thiophene)

PLA

Poly(lactide)

PLP

Pulsed laser polymerization

PMDETA

Pentamethyldiethylenetriamine

P(MEH-PPV)

Poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene)

PPP

Poly(p-phenylene)

PSt

Polystyrene

P(VdF-HFP)

Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)

Py

Pyrrole

PTMC

Poly(trimethylene carbonate)

rp

Rate of propagation

rt

Rate of termination

RAFT

Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer

ROGP

Ring-opening graft polymerization

ROMP

Ring-opening metathesis polymerization

RTILs

Room-temperature ILs

SA

Succinic acid

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

St

Styrene

T

Thiophene

Tg

Glass-transition temperature

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

TEMPO

2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy

TMPPAH

2,2,5-Trimethyl-3-(1-phenylethoxy)-4-phenyl-3-azahexane

TT

Terthiophene

VAc

Vinyl acetate

[VBBIM][BF4]

1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-3-butyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate

ε-CL

ε-Caprolactone

WAXD

Wide angle X-ray scattering

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to express our gratitude to the Research Affairs Division Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), for financial support. Further financial support from National Elite Foundation (NEF) and Center of Excellency in Sensors and Green Research (IUT) are also gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of ChemistryIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials InstituteIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryYasouj UniversityYasoujIran

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