Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 231–251 | Cite as

Biodegradability of a Selected Range of Polymers and Polymer Blends and Standard Methods for Assessment of Biodegradation

  • Ranjith Jayasekara
  • Ian Harding
  • Ian Bowater
  • Greg Lonergan

Synthetic polymers are important to the packaging industry but their use raises aesthetic and environmental concerns, particularly with regard to solid waste accumulation problems and the threat to wildlife. Some concerns are addressed by attention to problems associated with source reduction, incineration, recycling and landfill. Others are addressed by the development of new biodegradable polymers either alone or in blends. Materials used for biodegradable polymers include various forms of starch and products derived from it, biopolyesters and some synthetic polymers. Starch is rapidly metabolised and is an excellent base material for polymer blends or for infill of more environmentally inert polymers where it is metabolised to leave less residual polymer on biodegradation. This should help to improve the environmental impact of waste disposal. A number of standard methods have been developed to estimate the extent of biodegradability of polymers under various conditions and with a variety of organisms. They tend to be used mainly in the countries where they were developed but there is much overlap between the standards of different countries and wide scope for development of consistent and international standards.

Key words

Biodegradation starch polyvinyl alcohol compostability biodegradable polymers degradation biodegradable packaging polyesters 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Scott, D., Gilead, D. 1995Degradable Polymers – Principles and ApplicationChapman & HallLondon247258Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glover, R. 1993Int. Biodeteriorat. Biodegradat31171178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Volkenburg, W. R., White, M. A. 1993Tappi J76193197Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander, M. 1994Recalcitrant Molecules. Biodegradation and BioremediationAcademic PressSan Diego272286Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grigat, E., Salewski, K., Timmermann, R., Koch, R. 1997Kunstoffe Plast. Europe871920Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Commonwealth of Australia (1996) Packaging and Labelling, Report 49 Part A Introduction. Canberra, Australia: Industry Commission, Notes, 1–24Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sturges, M. 2000Packaging Technol. Sci133742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scott, G. G. 1990Polymer Degradat. Stabil29135154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fritz, J., Link, U., Braun, R. 2001Starch/Stärke53105109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whitney, J., Swaffield, C. H., Graffham, A. J. 1993Int. Biodeteriorat. Biodegradat3179198Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Scott (2000) Biodegradable Polymers [Web Page]. Accessed 2000 March 30. Available at:
  12. 12.
    D. Risstrom (2000) Compost 2000 Downunder Conference, November 2000, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flintoff, L. D. 1974Staudinger, I. J. J. P. eds. Plastics and the EnvironmentHutchinson and Co. Ltd.London83131Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flintoff, L. D. 1974Staudinger, I. J. J. P. eds. Plastics and the EnvironmentHutchinson and Co. Ltd.London136154Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wool, R. P. 1995Scott, G.Gilead, D. eds. Degradable Polymers – Principles and ApplicationsChapman and HallLondon138168Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McKellar, F., Allen, N. S. 1979McKellar, J. F.Allen, N. S. eds. Photochemistry of Man-made PolymersApplied Science Publishers Ltd.Essex, England182198Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hocking, P. J. 1992J. Macromol. Sci. – Rev. Macromol. Chem. PhysC323554Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gage, P. 1990Tappi J73161169Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maddever, W. J., Chapman, G. M. 1989Plastics EngineeringVL3134Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Karlsson, S. 1994Griffin, G. L. J. eds. Chemistry and Technology of Biodegradable PolymersBlackie Academic, Chapman and HallLondon717Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hocking, P. J., Marchessault, R. H. 1994Griffin, G. L. J. eds. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Polymer BiodegradationBlackie Academic and ProfessionalLondon4896Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mayer, M., Kaplan, D. L. 1994Trends Polymer Sci2227235Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ASTM D 5338–92 (1993) Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Controlled Composting Conditions. (superseded by D 5338-98e1 – Ref. 234.)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    ISO 14855 (1999) Determination of the Ultimate Aerobic Biodegradability and Disintegration of Plastic Materials Under Controlled Composting Conditions Method by Analysis of Evolved Carbon DioxideGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baere, L., Wilde, B., Tillinger, R. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam, The Netherlands323330Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wilde, L., Boelen, B. 1988Polymer Degradat. Stabil59712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bastioli, C. 1998Macromol. Symp135193204Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jayasekara, R., Lonergan, G. T., Harding, I., Bowater, I., Halley, P., Christie, B. B. Y. 2001J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol76411417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    ASTM G 21–70 (1985) Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to FungiGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    ASTM G 22–76 (1985) Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Plastics to BacteriaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Tsuji and Y. Omoda (1994) Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers, 345–350Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fields, R. D., Rodriguez, F., Finn, R. K. 1973Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer Chem141244Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    AS 4351.3 (1996) Biodegradability – Organic Compounds in an Aqueous Medium. Part 3: Determination by Oxygen Demand in a Closed RespirometerGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    ASTM D 5271–93 (1993) Standard Test Method for Determining the Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in an Activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment SystemGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DIN 54900–2 (1997) Testing of the Compostability of Polymeric Materials – Part 2: Evaluation of the Complete Biodegradability of Polymeric Materials in Laboratory Tests (Draft). Beuth Verlag, Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ISO 14851 (1999) Plastics – Determination of the Ultimate Aerobic Degradability of Organic Compounds in Aqueous Medium – Method by Determining the Oxygen Demand in a Closed RespirometerGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    ISO 14852 (1999) Plastics – Determination of the Ultimate Aerobic Degradability of Organic Compounds in Aqueous Medium – Method by Analysis of Evolved Carbon DioxideGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    ASTM D 5526–94 (1994) Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Accelerated Landfill ConditionsGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    ASTM D 5511–94 (1994) Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under High-solids Anaerobic-digestion ConditionsGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    ASTM D 5210–92 (1992) Standard Test Method for Determining the Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in the Presence of Municipal Sewage SludgeGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    OECD-301B (1981) Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. 301B – Ready Biodegradability: Modified Sturm Test. 1981 MayGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Starnecker, V., Menner, M. 1996Int. Biodeteriorat. Biodegradat378592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eya, H., Iwaki, N., Otsuji, Y. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam337344Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Seal, K. J. 1994Griffin, G. J. L. eds. Chemistry and Technology of Biodegradable PolymersBlackie Academic and ProfessionalLondon116134Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yabannavar, A. V., Bartha, R. 1994Appl. Environ. Microbiol6036083614Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coma, V., Couturier, Y., Pascat, B., Bureau, G., Guilbert, S., Cuq, J. L. 1994Packaging Technol. Sci78798Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arévalo-Nino, K., Sandoval, C. F., Galan, L. J., Imam, S. H., Gordon, S. H., Greene, R. V. 1996Biodegradation7231237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thiebaud, S., Aburto, J., Alric, I., Borredon, E., Bikiaris, D., Prinos, J., Panayiotou, C. 1997J. Appl. Polymer Sci65705721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aburto, J., Alric, I., Thiebaud, S., Borredon, E., Bikiaris, D., Prinos, J., Panayiotou, C. 1999J. Appl. Polymer Sci7414401451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aburto, J., Alric, I., Borrendon, E. 1999Starch/Stärke51132135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vikman, M., Itävaara, , Poutanen, K. 1995J. Environ. Polymer Degradat32329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kirk, R. E., Othmer, D. F., Grayson, M. 1978–1984Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology3rd Edn.John Wiley and SonsNew York626666Supplementary volumeGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Albertsson, A. C. 1978J. Appl. Polymer Sci2234193433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Albertsson, A.-C. 1980Eur. Polymer J16623630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Banhidi, Z. G. 1980J. Appl. Polymer Sci2516551671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sharabi, E., Bartha, R. 1993Appl. Environ. Microbiol5912011205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    ASTM D 882–95a (1995) Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic SheetingGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    ASTM D 1434–82 (1982) Standard Test Method for Determining Gas Permeability Characterisitics of Plastic Film and SheetingGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    ASTM D 1898–68 (1989) Standard Practice for Sampling of PlasticsGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    ASTM D 3045–92 (1997) Standard Practice for Heat Aging of Plastics Without LoadGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    ASTM D 3079–94 (1994) Standard Test Method for Water Vapour Transmission of Flexible Heat-sealed Packages for Dry ProductsGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    ASTM D 3826-98 (1998) Standard Practice for Determining Degradation End Point in Degradable Polyethylene and Polypropylene Using a Tensile TestGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    ASTM D 3951–90 (1990) Standard Practice for Commercial PackagingGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    ASTM D 4364–94 (1994) Standard Practice for Performing Outdoor Accelerated Weathering Tests of Plastics Using Concentrated SunlightGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    ASTM D 5272–92 (1992) Standard Practice for Outdoor Exposure Testing of Photodegradable PlasticsGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    ASTM F 88–94 (1994) Standard Test Method for Seal Strength of Flexible Barrier MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    ASTM G 7–97 (1997) Standard Practice for Atmospheric Environmental Exposure Testing of Nonmetallic MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    ASTM F 1249–90 (1990) Standard Ttest Method for Water Vapor Transmission Rate Through Plastic Film and Sheeting Using a Modulated Infrared SensorGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    ASTM G 53–88 (1988) Standard Practice for Operating Light- and Water-Exposure Apparatus (Fluorescent UV-Condensation Type) for Exposure of Nonmetallic MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    ASTM G 90–98 (1999) Standard Practice for Performing Accelerated Outdoor Weathering of Nonmetallic Materials Using Concentrated Natural SunlightGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    ASTM D 882–83 (1983) Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic SheetingGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    ASTM D 638–77 (1977) Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of PlasticsGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rose, H. 1980Economic Microbiology5th Ed.Acadamic PressLondon147Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ramesh, M., Mitchell, J. R., Harding, S. E. 1999Starch/Stärke53311313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wallace, R. A., King, J. L., Sanders, G. P. 1981Wallace, R. A.King, J. L.Sanders, G. P. eds. Biology – The Science of LifeGoodyear Publishing CompanyCalifonia5682Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ellis, R. P., Cochrane, P. M., Dale, M. F. B., Duffus, C. M., Lynn,  A., Morrison, I. M., Pretice, R. D. M., Swanston, J. S., Tiller, S. A. 1998J. Sci. Food Agri77289311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Antranikian, G. 1992Winkelmann, G. eds. Microbial Degradation of Natural ProductsVCHWeinheim, New York, Basel, Cambridge2756Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kennedy, J. F., Cabral, J. M. S., Correia, S. A., White,  C. A. 1987Galliard, T. eds. Starch: Properties and PotentialJohn Wiley and SonsChichester115148Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Seguchi, K., Hosomi, H., Yamauchi, T., Yasui, , Imai, T. 2001Starch/Stärke53140146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    French, D. 1984Whistler, R. L.BeMiller, J. N.Paschall, E. F. eds. Starch-Chemistry and TechnologyAcademic Press Inc.London183247Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Park, E. H., George, E. R., Muldoon, M. A., Flammino, A. 1994Polymer News19230238Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    W. Rutenberg and D. Solarek, (1984) in R. L. Whistler, J. N. Bemiller, and E. F. Paschall (Eds.). Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, Orlando, USAGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vaidya, U. R., Bhattacharya, M. 1994J. Appl. Polymer Sci52617628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zobel, F. H. 1984Whistler, R. L.BeMiller, J. N.Paschall, E. F. eds. Starch-Chemistry and Technology2Academic Press Inc.London285309Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jenkins, P. J., Donald, A. M. 1997J. Appl. Polymer Sci66225232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    V. J. J. G. Soest (1996) Starch Plastics: Structure–function Property Relationships, PhD thesis, Universiteit Utrecht, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tsiapouris, A., Linke, L. 2000Starch/Stärke525357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wolff, A., Davis, H. A., Cluskey, J. E., Gundrum, L. J., Rist, C. E. 1951Indust. Eng. Chem43915919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Walenta, H., Fink, P., Weigel, P., Ganster, J. 2001Macromol. Mater. Eng286456461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sagar, D., Merrill, E. W. 1995J. Appl. Polymer Sci5816471656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fringant, C., Desbrieres, J., Rinaudo, M. 1996Polymer3726632673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Parandoosh, S., Hudson, S. M. 1993J. Appl. Polymer Sci48787791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rivard, C., Moens, L., Roberts, K., Brigham, J., Kelley, S. 1995Enz. Microbiol. Technol17848852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tessler, M., Billmers, R. L. 1996J. Environ. Polymer Degradat48589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Radley, J. A. 1976Industrial Uses of Starch and its DerivativesApplied Science PublishersLondon306353Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. J. Billmers, W. Paul, S. F. Hatfield, and T. F. Kauffman (1993) US Patent 5,360,845. Aug 13Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Avella, M., Martuscelli, E. 1987Polymer2917311737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nishioka, M., Tuzuki, T., Wanajyo, Y., Oonami, H., Horiuchi, T. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam584590Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Takiyama, E., Fujimaki, T. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam150174Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fujimaki, T. 1998Polymer Degradat. Stabil59209214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jun, S. H., Kim, B. O., Kim, Y. C., Chang, H. N., Woo, S. I. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam498500Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yokota, Y., Ishioka, R., Moteki, Y., Watanabe, N. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam577583Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Finch, A. 1992Finch, A. eds. Polyvinyl Alcohol-DevelopmentsJohn Wiley and SonsChichester, New York, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore269312Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Billmeyer, J. W. 1984Textbook of Polymer ScienceJohn Wiley and SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jianlong, W., Wenhua, H., Yi, Q. 1995Biotechnol. Techn9203208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jegal, T., Ho Lee, K. 1996J. Appl. Polymer Sci61389392Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lozinsky, V. L., Domotenko, V., Zubov, A. L., Simenel, I. A. 1996J. Appl. Polymer Sci6119911998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Suzuki, T., Nakane, K., Piao, J. 1996J. Mater. Sci3113351340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Suzuki, T., Ichihara, Y., Dazgi, M., Misuno, T. 1973J. Fermentat. Technol51692698Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Suzuki, T. 1976Agric. Biol. Chem40497504Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Watanabe, Y., Hamada, N., Morita, M., Tsujisaka, Y. 1976Arch. Biochem. Biophys174575581CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Morita, M., Hamada, N., Sakai, K., Watanabe, Y. 1979Agric. Biol. Chem4312251235Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sakai, K., Morita, M., Hamada, N., Watanabe, Y. 1981Agric. Biol. Chem456371Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sakazawa, C., Shimao, M., Taniguchi, Y., Kato, N. 1981Appl. Environ. Microbiol41261267Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shimao, H., Fukuta, I., Kato, N., Sakazawa, C. 1984Appl. Environ. Microbiol48751754Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fukae, R., Fujii, T., Takeo, M., Yamamoto, T., Sato, T., Maeda, Y., Sangen, O. 1994Polymer J2613811386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hatanaka, T., Hashimoto, T., Kawahara, T., Takami, M., Asahi, N., Wada, R. 1996Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem6018611863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mori, T., Sakimoto, M., Kagi, T., Sakai, T. 1996Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem60330332Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kawagoshi, Y., Mitihiro, Y., Fujita, M., Hashimoto, S. 1997World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol136367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chiellini, E., Corti, A., Solaro, R. 1999Polymer Degradat. Stabil64305312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ikejima, T., Yoshie, N., Inoue, Y. 1999Polymer Degradat. Stabil66263270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    D. Larking (1999) Chemical and Biological Degradation of Starch Polymer Blends, PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Packter, A., Nerurkar, M. S. 1969Polymer Lett7761764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hubca, G., Tomescu, M., Hillebrand, M., Iovu, H. 1995J. Appl. Polymer Sci5816751680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mühlebach, A., Müller, B., Pharisa, C., Hofmann, M., Seiferling, B., Guerry, D. 1997J. Polymer Sci., Part A, Polymer. Chem3536033611Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zidan, M. 1999Polymer Test18449461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gebelein, G., Burnfield, K. E. 1980Carraher, C. E.Minor, T. eds. Modification of PolymersAmerican Chemical SocietyWashington83102Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Caro, S. V., Sung, C. S. P., Merrill, E. W. 1976J. Appl. Polymer Sci2032413246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Matsunaga, T., Ikada, Y. 1980Carraher, C. E.Minor, T. eds. Modification of PolymersAmerican Chemical SocietyWashington391406Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ikada, Y., Nishizaki, Y., Sakurada, I. 1974J. Polymer Sci. Polymer Chem. Edn1218291839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chowdhury, P., Pal, C. M. 1999Eur. Polymer J3522072213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Moritani, T., Kajitani, K. 1997Polymer3829332945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shaikh, S., Asrof, A. S., Hamad, E. Z., Al-Nafaa, M., Al-Jarallah, A., Abu-Sharkh, B. 1998J. Appl. Polymer Sci7024992506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mino, G., Kaizerman, S., Rasmussen, E. 1959J. Polymer Sci39523529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ikada, Y., Nishizaki, Y., Iwata, H., Sakurada, I. 1977J. Polymer Sci. Polymer Chem. Edn15451460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bastioli, C. 1995Scott, G.Gilead, D. eds. Degradable Polymers – Principles and ApplicationsChapman and HallLondon112132Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Roper, H., Koch, H. 1990Starch/Stärke42123130Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wiedmann, W., Strobel, E. 1991Starch/Stärke43138145Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    R. Chinnaswamy and M. A. Hanna (1992) Biodegradable Polymers – US Patent 5496895Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    V. C. Christov and S. Carson (1993) Thermoplastic Starch. CSIRO confidential report. DMST No. 93-25, Clayton, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    I. Tomka (1994) Thermoplastically Processable Starch and a Method of Making It. US Patent 5362777Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Soest, V. J. J. G., Tournois, H., Vliegenthart, J. F. G. 1994Starch/Stärke12453457Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Soest, V. J. J. G., Benes, K., Wit, D. 1996Polymer3735433552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Soest, V. J. J. G., Knooren, N. 1997J. Appl. Polymer Sci6414111421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lourdin, D., Bizot, H., Colonna, P. 1997J. Appl. Polymer Sci6310471053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Pellegrini, C., Tomka, I. 1998Macromol. Symp1273135Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Funke, U., Bergthaller, W., Lindhauer, M. G. 1998Polymer Degradat. Stabil59293296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Peanasky, S., Long, J. M., Wool, R. P. 1991J. Polymer Sci. Part B: Polymer Phys29565579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Shogren, R., Thompson, A. R., Felker, F. C., Harry-O’Kuru, R. E., Gordon, H., Greene, R. V., Gould, J. M. 1992J. Appl. Polymer Sci4419711978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Corti, A., Vallini, G., Pera, A., Cioni, F., Solaro, R., Chiellini, E. 1992Vert, M.Fejien, J.Albertsson, A.-C.Scott, G. eds. Biodegradable Polymers and PlasticsThe Royal Society of ChemistryCambridge245248Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ndon, U. J., Levine, A. D., Bradley, B. S. 1992Water Sci. Technol2620892092Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Greizerstein, B., Syracuse, J. A., Kostyniak, P. J. 1993Polymer Degradat. Stabil39251259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Karlsson, S. 1993Int. Biodeteriorat. Biodegradat31161170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Johnson, E., Pometto, A. L., Nikolov, Z. L. 1993Appl. Environ. Microbiol5911551161Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Griffin, J. L. 1994Griffin, L. eds. Chemistry and Technology of Biodegradable PolymersBlackie Academic and ProfessionalLondon, Glasgow1847Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Barenstedt, C., Karlsson, S., Lindberg, T. 1995Polymer3630753083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Chandra, R., Rustgi, R. 1997Polymer Degradat. Stabil56185202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Willett, L. 1994J. Appl. Polymer Sci5416851695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Huang, C., Shetty, A. S., Wang, M. S. 1990Adv. Polymer Technol102330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Baumberger, S., Lapierre, C., Monties, B., Della, V. G. 1998Polymer Degradat. Stabil59273277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Cho, Y., Ko, S. 2000Polymer4120332039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Demirgöz, D., Elvira, C., Mano, J. F., Cunha, A. M., Piskin, E., Reis, R. L. 2000Polymer Degradat. Stabil70161170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Selke, S. E. M. 1990Biodegradation and Packaging: A Literature ReviewAntony Rowe Ltd.Chippenham, UKGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Scandola, M., Finelli, L., Sarti, B., Mergaert, J., Swings, J., Ruffieux, K., Wintermantel, E., Boelens, J., De Wilde, B., Müller, W., Schäfer, A., Fink, A. B., Bader, H. G. 1998J. Macromol. Sci. – Pure Appl. Chem35589608Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Mani, R., Bhattacharya, M. 2001Eur. Polymer J37515526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kitano, M., Yakabe, Y. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam217227Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Swift, G. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam228236Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    R. J. Mu¨ ller, J. Augusta, T. Walter, and H. Widdecke 1867 (1994) in Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers (Y. Doi and 1868 K. Fukuda, Eds.), Elsevier Science, pp. 237-249Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wool, R. P. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam250258Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Primarini, D., Ohta, Y. 2000Starch/Stärke522832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Dettori-Campus, B. G., Priest, F. G., Stark, J. R. 1992Process Biochem271721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Giraud, E., Champailler, A., Raimbault, M. 1994Appl. Environ. Microbiol6043194323Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Imam, S. H., Burgess-Cassler, A., Cote, G. L., Gordon, S. H., Baker, F. L. 1991Curr. Microbiol22365370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Park, T., Rollings, J. E. 1989Polymer Preprints30511512Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Danielenko, A. N., Bogomolov, A. A., Yuryev, V. P., Dianova, V. T., Bogatyrev, A. N. 1993Starch/Stärke456365Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kompolprasert, V., Ofoli, R. Y. 1991J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol51209223Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Derradji-Serghat, H., Bureau, G., Couturier, Y., Prudhomme, J.-C. 1999Starch/Stärke51362368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Weber, H., Schepers, H. J., Trösch, W. 1990Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol33602606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Antranikian, G. 1990FEMS Microbiol. Rev75201218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Laluce, C., Bertolini, M., Ernandes, J. R., Martini, A. V., Martini, A. 1988Appl. Environ. Microbiol5424472451Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lenz, R.W. 1993Peppas, I. N. A.Langer, R. S. eds. Advances in Polymer Science: Biopolymers ISpringer-VerlagBerlin140Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Suzuki, T., Ichihara, Y., Yamada, M., Tonomura, K. 1973Agric. Biol. Chem37747756Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Shimao, H., Yamamoto, H., Ninomiya, K., Kato, N., Adachi, O., Ameyama, M., Sakazawa, C. 1984Agric. Biol. Chem4828732876Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Corti, A., Solaro, R., Chiellini, E. 2002Polymer Degradat. Stabil75447458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Takasu, A., Itou, H., Takada, M., Inai, Y., Hirabayashi, T. 2002Polymer43227231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sakai, K., Hamada, N., Watanabe, Y. 1986Agric. Biol. Chem50989996Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J. M. C. 1993Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine2nd Ed., Oxford University PressNew York185Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Huang, S. J., Wang, I. F., Quinga, E. 1983Polymer Sci. Technol217583Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Benedict, V., Cameron, J. A., Huang, S. J. 1983J. Appl. Polymer Sci28335342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    H. Nishida and Y. Tokiwa (1994) Chem. Lett., 1293–1296Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Yakabe, Y., Kitano, M. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam331336Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Pettigrew, A., Rece, G. A., Smith, M. C., King, L. W. 1995J. Macromol. Sci. – Pure Appl. ChemA32811821Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Renstad, R., Erlandsson, B., Eldsater, C., Karlsson, S. 1998J. Appl. Polymer Sci706174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kasuya, K., Takagi, K., Ishiwatari, S., Yoshida, Y., Doi, Y. 1998Polymer Degradat. Stabil59327332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ikada, E. 1999J. Environ. Polymer Degradat7197201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Fields, R. D., Rodriguez, F., Finn, R. K. 1974J. Appl. Polymer Sci1835713579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ohataki, A., Akakura, N., Nakasaki, K. 1998Polymer Degradat. Stabil62279284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Cook, W. J., Cameron, J. A., Bell, J. P., Huang, S. J. 1981J. Polymer Sci. Polymer Lett. Edn19159165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Tilstra, L., Johnsonbaugh, D. 1993J. Environ. Polymer Degradat1257267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Eldsäter, C., Erlandsson, B., Renstad, R., Albertsson, A.-C., Karlsson, S. 2000Polymer4112971304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Tsuji, M., Suzuyoshi, K. 2002Polymer Degradat. Stabil72347355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Tsuji, M., Suzuyoshi, K. 2002Polymer Degradat. Stabil72357365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Cai, Q., Bei, J., Luo, A., Wang, S. 2001Polymer Degradat. Stabil71243251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Weiland, M., Daro, A., David, C. 1995Polymer Degradat. Stabil48275289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    F. Tung, D. M. Wiles, B. E. Cermak, J. G. Gho, and C. W. J. Hare (1999) Addcon’99 Conference, Prague, Czechoslovakia, October 27–28, 207Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Potts, E., Clendinning, R. A., Ackart, W. B., Niegisch, W. D. 1972Polymer Preprints13629634Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Scott, G. 1975Polymer Age65456Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Banhidi, Z. G., Beyer-Ericsson, L. L. 1978J. Appl. Polymer Sci2234353447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Albertsson, A-C., Ranby, B. 1979J. Appl. Polymer Sci. Appl. Polymer Symp35423430Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Albertsson, A.-C., Andersson, S. O., Karlsson, S. 1987Polymer Degradat. Stabil187387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    J. L. Griffin (1977) Biodegradable Synthetic Resin Sheet Material Containing Starch and a Fatty Material. Coloroll Limited, assignee. C08J 003/20. United States patent 4016117Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Bikiaris, D., Prinos, J., Koutsopoulos, K., Vouroutzis, N., Pavlidou, E., Frangis, N., Panayiotou, C. 1998Polymer Degradat. Stabil59287291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Lee, B., Pometto, A. L., Fratzke, A., Bailey, T. B. 1991Appl. Environ. Microbiol57678685Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Cornell, J. H., Kaplan, A. M., Rogers, M. R. 1984J. Appl. Polymer Sci2925812597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Griffin, G. 1976J. Polymer Sci.: Polymer Symp57281286Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Evangelista, R. L., Nikolov, Z. L., Sung, W., Jane, J. L., Gelina, R. J. 1991Ind. Eng. Chem. Res3018411846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Imam, H., Gould, J. M., Gordon, S. H., Kinney, M. P., Ramsey, A. M., Tosteson, T. R. 1992Curr. Microbiol2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Imam, S. H., Harry-O’Kuru, R. E. 1991Appl. Environ. Microbiol5711281133Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Imam, S. H., Gould, J. M. 1990Appl. Environ. Microbiol56872876Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Tokiwa, Y., Iwamoto, A. 1994Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam190199Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    C. Bastioli (1994) The Starch Based Thermoplastics [Novamont]. Recycle ’94 – Davos Global Forum and Exposition; Davos, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Doi, Y., Kanesawa, Y., Tanahashi, N. 1992Polymer Degradat. Stabil36173177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Kumagai, Y., Doi, Y. Y. 1992Polymer Degradat. Stabil358793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Jayasekara, R., Sheridan, S., Lourbakos, E., Beh, H., Christie, G. B. Y., Jenkins, M., Halley, P. B., McGlashan, S., Lonergan, G. T. 2002Int. Biodeteriorat. Biodegradat517781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Ratto, J., Stenhouse, P. J., Auerbach, M., Mitchell, J., Farrell, R. 1999Polymer4067776788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Pagga, U., Schafer, A., Muller, R. J., Pantke, M. 2001Chemosphere42319331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Yoshida, Y., Uemura, T. 1993Doi, Y.Fukuda, K. eds. Biodegradable Plastics and PolymersElsevier ScienceAmsterdam443458Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Lawton, L. 1996Carbohydrates Polymers29203208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Tudorachi, C. N., Cascaval, M., Rusu, M., Pruteanu, M. 2000Polymer Test19785799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Haschke, H., Tomka, I., Keilbach, A. 1998Monatshefte Fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly12487507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Simmons, S., Thomas, E. L. 1995J. Appl. Polymer Sci5822592285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Larking, D., Crawford, R. J., Christie, G. B. Y., Lonergan, G. T. 1999Appl. Environ. Microbiol6517981800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    ASTM D 5271–92 (1992) Standard Test Method for Assessing the Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Material in an Activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment SystemGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    ASTM D 5338–98e1 (1998) Standard Test Method for Determining the Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Controlled Composting ConditionsGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    DIN 54900–1 (1997) Testing of the Compostability of Polymeric Materials – Part 1: Chemical Testing (Draft). Beuth Verlag, Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    DIN 54900–3 (1997) Testing of the Compostability of Polymeric Materials – Part 3: Testing Under Conditions of Practical Relevance and Testing of the Utilization Properties of Compost (Draft). Beuth Verlag, Deutsches Institut für Normung, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    DIN 54900–4 (1997) Testing of the Compostability of Polymeric Materials – Part 4: Testing of the Ecotoxicity of Compost (Draft). Beuth Verlag, Deutsches Institut für Normung, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    JIS K 6953 Determination of the Ultimate Biodegradability and Disintegration of Plastic Materials Under Controlled Composting Conditions – Method by Analysis of Evolved Carbon DioxideGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    CEN TC 261 SC4 WG2 (1995) Aerobic Degradability in a Composting System – Report of a Ring Test and Test Method (CEN Draft)Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    ASTM D6400–99 (1999) Standard Specification for Compostable PlasticsGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    ASTM D6002–96 (1996) Standard Guide for Assessing the Compostability of Environmentally Degradable PlasticsGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    BSEN 13432 (2000) Packaging – Requirements for Packaging Recoverable Through Composting and Biodegradation – Test Scheme and Evaluation Criteria for the Final Acceptance of PackagingGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    ASTM D5951–96 (1996) Standard Practice for Preparing Residual Solids Obtained After Biodegradability Standard Methods for Plastics in Solid Waste for Toxicity and Compost Quality TestingGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    ASTM E 1963–98 ASTM E1963-98 (1998) Standard Guide for Conducting Terrestrial Plant Toxicity TestGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    ASTM E1676–97 (1998) Standard Guide for Conducting Laboratory Soil Toxicity or Bioaccumulation Tests with the Lumbricid Earthworm Eisenia fetidaGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    ASTM E1440–91 (1991) Standard Guide for Acute Toxicity Test with the Rotifer Brachionus. 11/1991 (Reapproved 1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ranjith Jayasekara
    • 1
  • Ian Harding
    • 1
  • Ian Bowater
    • 1
  • Greg Lonergan
    • 1
  1. 1.Environment and Biotechnology CentreSwinburne University of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations