Advertisement

Scalable Load Balancing and Flow Management in Dynamic Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

  • 87 Accesses

  • 1 Citations

Abstract

The number of connected devices has reached 18 billion in 2017 and this will nearly double by 2022, while also new wireless communication technologies become available. Since these modern devices support the use of multiple communication technologies, efforts have been made to enable simultaneous usage and handovers between the different technologies for these devices. However, existing solutions are missing the intelligence to decide on fine-grained (e.g. flow or packet level) optimizations that can drastically enhance the network’s performance (e.g., throughput) and user experience. To this extent, we present a multi-technology flow-management load balancing approach for heterogeneous wireless networks that dynamically re-routes traffic through heterogeneous networks, in order to maximize the global throughput. This dynamic approach can be deployed on top of existing solutions and takes into account the specific characteristics of the different technologies, as well as station mobility. We both present a mathematical problem formulation and a heuristic that ensures practical scalability. We demonstrate the heuristic’s ability to increase the network-wide throughput by more than 100% across a variety of scenarios and scalability up to 10,000 devices.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Cisco: Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Trends, 2017–2022. Cisco pp. 1–71 (2017)

  2. 2.

    Afaqui, M.S., Garcia-Villegas, E., Lopez-Aguilera, E.: IEEE 802.11ax: challenges and requirements for future high efficiency WiFi. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 24(3), 130–137 (2016)

  3. 3.

    IEEE 1905.1: Standard for a Convergent Digital Home Network for Heterogeneous Technologies (2013)

  4. 4.

    Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., Bonaventure, O.: TCP Extensions for Multipath Operation with Multiple Addresses. RFC 6824, RFC Editor (2013). http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6824.txt

  5. 5.

    Hoymann, C., Astely, D., Stattin, M., Wikström, G., Cheng, J.F.T., Höglund, A., Frenne, M., Blasco, R., Huschke, J., Gunnarsson, F.: LTE release 14 outlook. IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(6), 44–49 (2016)

  6. 6.

    De Schepper, T., Bosch, P., Zeljkovi, E., Haxhibeqiri, J., Hoebeke, J., Famaey, J., Latre, S.: ORCHESTRA: enabling inter-technology network management in heterogeneous wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag. 15(4), 1733–1746 (2018)

  7. 7.

    De Schepper, T., Latré, S., Famaey, J.: Flow management and load balancing in dynamic heterogeneous LANs. IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag. 15(2), 693–706 (2018)

  8. 8.

    De Schepper, T., Latre, S., Famaey, J.: Load balancing and flow management under user mobility in heterogeneous wireless networks. In: 2018 14th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM), pp. 1–9 (2018)

  9. 9.

    Tessares: Hybrid Access Networks with MPTCP. https://www.tessares.net/

  10. 10.

    Rebecchi, F., De Amorim, M.D., Conan, V., Passarella, A., Bruno, R., Conti, M.: Data offloading techniques in cellular networks: A survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 17(2), 580–603 (2015)

  11. 11.

    De Coninck, Q., Baerts, M., Hesmans, B., Bonaventure, O.: A first analysis of multipath TCP on smartphones. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 9631(September 2015), 57–69 (2016)

  12. 12.

    Paasch, C., Ferlin, S., Alay, O., Bonaventure, O.: Experimental evaluation of multipath TCP schedulers. In: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Capacity Sharing Workshop—CSWS ’14, pp. 27–32 (2014)

  13. 13.

    Khalili, R., Gast, N., Popovic, M., Le Boudec, J.Y.: Mptcp is not pareto-optimal: performance issues and a possible solution. IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (ToN) 21(5), 1651–1665 (2013)

  14. 14.

    Mukherjee, A., Cheng, J.F., Falahati, S., Koorapaty, H., Kang, D.H., Karaki, R., Falconetti, L., Larsson, D.: Licensed-assisted access LTE: coexistence with IEEE 802.11 and the evolution toward 5G. IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(6), 50–57 (2016)

  15. 15.

    Abinader, F.M., Almeida, E.P., Chaves, F.S., Cavalcante, A.M., Vieira, R.D., Paiva, R.C., Sobrinho, A.M., Choudhury, S., Tuomaala, E., Doppler, K., Sousa, V.A.: Enabling the coexistence of LTE and Wi-Fi in unlicensed bands. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(11), 54–61 (2014)

  16. 16.

    Zhang, N., Zhang, S., Wu, S., Ren, J., Mark, J.W., Shen, X.: Beyond coexistence: traffic steering in LTE networks with unlicensed bands. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 23(6), 40–46 (2016)

  17. 17.

    Networks, M.: Truffle—Broadband Bonding Appliance. https://www.mushroomnetworks.com/truffle/

  18. 18.

    Macone, D., Oddi, G., Palo, A., Suraci, V.: A dynamic load balancing algorithm for quality of service and mobility management in next generation home networks. Telecommun. Syst. 53(3), 265–283 (2013)

  19. 19.

    Oddi, G., Pietrabissa, A., Priscoli, F.D., Suraci, V.: A decentralized load balancing algorithm for heterogeneous wireless access networks. In: World Telecommunications Congress, pp. 1–6 (2014)

  20. 20.

    Olvera-Irigoyen, O., Kortebi, A., Toutain, L.: Available bandwidth probing for path selection in heterogeneous home networks. In: IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), pp. 492–497 (2012)

  21. 21.

    Bouchet, O., Kortebi, A., Boucher, M.: Inter-MAC green path selection for heterogeneous networks. In: IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), pp. 487–491 (2012)

  22. 22.

    Kortebi, A., Bouchet, O.: Performance evaluation of inter-mac green path selection protocol. In: 12th Annual IEEE Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (MED-HOC-NET), pp. 42–48 (2013)

  23. 23.

    Zekri, M., Jouaber, B., Zeghlache, D.: A review on mobility management and vertical handover solutions over heterogeneous wireless networks. Comput. Commun. 35(17), 2055–2068 (2012)

  24. 24.

    Gódor, G., Jakó, Z., Knapp, Á., Imre, S.: A survey of handover management in lte-based multi-tier femtocell networks: requirements, challenges and solutions. Comput. Netw. 76, 17–41 (2015)

  25. 25.

    Andrews, J.G., Singh, S., Ye, Q., Lin, X., Dhillon, H.S.: An overview of load balancing in hetnets: old myths and open problems. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 21(2), 18–25 (2014)

  26. 26.

    Ng, B., Deng, A., Qu, Y., Seah, W.K.: Changeover prediction model for improving handover support in campus area wlan. In: Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2016 IEEE/IFIP, pp. 265–272. IEEE (2016)

  27. 27.

    Harutyunyan, D., Herle, S., Maradin, D., Agapiu, G., Riggio, R.: Traffic-aware user association in heterogeneous lte/wifi radio access networks. In: NOMS 2018-2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, pp. 1–8. IEEE (2018)

  28. 28.

    Lien, S.Y., Shieh, S.L., Huang, Y., Su, B., Hsu, Y.L., Wei, H.Y.: 5g new radio: waveform, frame structure, multiple access, and initial access. IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(6), 64–71 (2017)

  29. 29.

    Parkvall, S., Dahlman, E., Furuskar, A., Frenne, M.: Nr: the new 5g radio access technology. IEEE Commun. Stand. Mag. 1(4), 24–30 (2017)

  30. 30.

    Alizadeh, A., Vu, M.: Load balancing user association in millimeter wave mimo networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 18(6), 2932–2945 (2019)

  31. 31.

    Donoso, Y., Fabregat, R.: Multi-objective Optimization in Computer Networks Using Metaheuristics. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2016)

  32. 32.

    De Schepper, T., Latre, S., Famaey, J.: A transparent load balancing algorithm for heterogeneous Local Area Networks. In: 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), pp. 160–168 (2017)

  33. 33.

    Liu, H., Darabi, H., Banerjee, P., Liu, J.: Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C Appl. Rev. 37(6), 1067–1080 (2007)

  34. 34.

    Riley, G.F., Henderson, T.R.: The ns-3 network simulator. In: Modeling and Tools for Network Simulation, pp. 15–34. Springer (2010)

  35. 35.

    NoteTN2224, A.T.: Best Practices for Creating and Deploying HTTP Live Streaming Media for Apple Devices. Tech. rep., Apple (2012). https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/technotes/tn2224/_index.html

  36. 36.

    Lee, D.J., Carpenter, B.E., Brownlee, N.: Media streaming observations: trends in UDP to TCP ratio. Int. J. Adv. Syst. Meas. 3(3), 147–162 (2010)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Tom De Schepper.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

De Schepper, T., Latré, S. & Famaey, J. Scalable Load Balancing and Flow Management in Dynamic Heterogeneous Wireless Networks. J Netw Syst Manage 28, 133–159 (2020) doi:10.1007/s10922-019-09502-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Real-time wireless network management
  • Network optimization
  • Multi-technology load balancing
  • Inter-technology handovers