Journal of Network and Systems Management

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 14–45 | Cite as

A Review of Policy-Based Resource and Admission Control Functions in Evolving Access and Next Generation Networks

  • Christian Esteve RothenbergEmail author
  • Andreas Roos


The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) adopted in the core of Next Generation Networks (NGNs) promises to make network management easier by separating the control and the transport planes. Therefore, an interface between applications and the underlying transport network has been defined that offers a dynamic and efficient management of network resources based on a policy-based resource control engine. The resulting resource management framework enables the delivery of both the existing carrier grade existing and the next generation Quality of Service (QoS) sensitive services across operator-controlled networks using heterogeneous transport technologies. This review sheds some light into the policy control layer concept and the extended nomenclature introduced by current standardization works. The approaches of international standards development organizations, such as the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the WiMAX Forum, and CableLabs are reviewed and compared with each other revealing the common architectural trend. Challenges and works in progress of NGN resource management towards Fixed and Mobile Convergence (FMC) are discussed as well.


NGN Standardization Signaling QoS Convergence IP multimedia subsystem IMS FMC 


  1. 1.
    3GPP: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)—Stage 2. In: 3GPP TS 23.228 V8.0.0, March 2007Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Strassner, J.: Policy-based network management. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc., Los Altos, NJ, ISBN 1-55860-859-1, September 2003Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ITU-T: Resource and admission control functions in next generation networks. In: ITU-T recommendation Y.2111, October 2006Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D., Guerin, R.: A framework for policy-based admission control. In: IETF Standard RFC 2753, January 2000Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    3GPP: Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture. In: 3GPP TS 23.107 V6.4.0, March 2006Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    3GPP2: Service based bearer control—Stage 2. In: 3GPP2 X.S0013-012-0 v1.0, March 2007Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ETSI TISPAN: Resource and Admission Control Subsystem (RACS)—functional architecture. In: ETSI ES 282 003 V1.1.1, June 2006Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Durham, D., Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Herzog, S., Raja, R., Sastry, A.: The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol. In: IETF Standard RFC 2748, January 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chan, K., Seligson, J., Durham, D., Gai, S., McCloghrie, K., Herzog, S., Reichmeyer, F., Yavatkar, R., Smith, A.: COPS usage for policy provisioning (COPS-PR). In: IETF Standard RFC 3084, March 2001Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., Schooler, E.: SIP: session initiation protocol. In: IETF Standard RFC 3261, June 2002Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    3GPP: Policy control over Go interface. In: 3GPP TS 29.207 V6.5.0, September 2005Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    3GPP: Policy and charging control architecture. In: 3GPP TS 23.203 V1.2.0, September 2006Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., Arkko, J.: Diameter Base Protocol. In: IETF Standard RFC 3588, September 2003Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ETSI TISPAN: NGN functional architecture—network attachment sub-system (NASS). In ETSI ES 282 004 V1.1.1, June 2006Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ETSI TISPAN: H.248 Profile for controlling Border Gateway Functions (BGF) in the Resource and Admission Control Subsystem (RACS)—Protocol specification Ia Interface H.248. In: ETSI ES 283 018 V1.1.1, June 2006Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cable Television Laboratories, Inc.: PacketCable 2.0, Architecture framework technical report, In: PacketCable 2.0 PKT-TR-ARCH-FRM-V02-061013, October 13th, 2006Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): Web Services Description Language (WSDL) 1.1. In: W3C NOTE-wsdl-20010315, Accessed 15 March 2001
  18. 18.
    Cable Television Laboratories, Inc.: PacketCable 2.0, PacketCable Application manager interface specification, In PacketCable 2.0 PKT-SP-PAMI-I02-061013, 13 October 2006Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    WiMAX Forum Network Working Group (NWG): WiMAX End-to-end network systems architecture (stage 2). In Technical Document Release 1 DRAFT, 8 August 2006Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    DSL Forum: Policy control framework for DSL. In: Working text WT-134 Rev. 2, April 2006Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., Simpson, W.: Remote authentication dial in user service (RADIUS). In IEFT Standard RFC 2865, June 2000Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., Waldbusser, S.: Structure of management information for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). In IETF Standard RFC 1442, April 1993Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alfano, F., McCann, P., Tschofenig, H., Tsenov, T., Tsou, T.: Diameter quality of service application. In IETF draft-tschofenig-dime-diameter-qos-01,, October 2006
  24. 24.
    Ash, J., Bader, A., Kappler, C., Oran, D.: QoS-NSLP QSPEC template. In: IEFT draft-ietf-nsis-qspec-17,, June 2007
  25. 25.
    Hancock, R., Karagiannis, G., Loughney, J., van den Bosch, S.: Next steps in signaling (NSIS): framework. In: IETF RFC 4080, June 2005Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang, J., Monteiro, E., Mendes, P., Karagiannis, G., Karagiannis, G., Andres-Colas, J.: InterDomain-QOSM: The NSIS QOS Model to fulfill the E2E QoS control in the ITU-T RACF functional architecture. In: IETF draft-zhang-nsis-interdomain-qosm-04.txt,, March 2007
  27. 27.
    Anderson, T., Faynberg, I., Lu, H., Sun, D.: On the mechanisms for real-time application-driven resource management in next generation networks. In: Proceedings of international congress on intelligence in networks, ICIN2006, Bordeaux, France,, May 2006
  28. 28.
    Awduche, D., Chiu, A., Elwalid, A., Widjaja, I., Xiao, X.: Overview and principles of internet traffic engineering. In: IETF RFC 3272, May 2002Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ho, K., Wang, N., Trimintzios, P., Pavlou, G., Howarth, M.: On egress router selection for inter-domain traffic with bandwidth guarantees. In: Proceedings of the IEEE workshop in high performance switching and routing, HPSR 2004, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, April 2004Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Verdi, F.L., Magalhães, M.F., Madeira, E.R.M., Welin, A.: The virtual topology service: a mechanism for QoS-enabled interdomain routing. In: Proceedings of the 6th IEEE international workshop on IP operations and management, IPOM 2006, Dublin, Ireland, October 2006Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sorniotti, A., Corliano, G., Smith, A.P.: Design guidelines for an internet-scaled QoS framework. In Proceedings of fourth European conference on universal multiservice networks, ECUMN 2007, Toulouse France, February 2007Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Georgoulas, S., Trimintzios, P., Pavlou, G., Ho, K.: On the location-awareness of bandwidth allocation and admission control for the support of real-time traffic in class-based IP networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE/IFIP management of multimedia and mobile networks and services, MMNS 2006, Dublin, Ireland, October 2006Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Korhonen, J., Devarapalli, V., Giaretta, G., Koodli, R.: IP mobility and policy control. In: IETF draft-korhonen-mobopts-mobility-policy (work-in-progress), October 2006Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    ITU-T: Introduction to A-IMS (Advances to IMS). In: ITU-T NGN GSI Study Period 2005 Contribution 53, October 2006Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    MultiService Forum: GMI 2006 Physical scenarios. In: MultiService Forum MSF-TR-SCN06.001v2-FINAL, June 2006Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    ETSI TISPAN: IMS/NGN performance benchmark. In: Draft ETSI TS 186 008 V 0.0.98, January 2007Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (CPqD)CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbHDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations