Journal of Network and Systems Management

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 381–414 | Cite as

A Gossip-Based Energy Conservation Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

  • Xiaobing Hou
  • David Tipper
  • Shuju Wu

In this paper, we present an energy conservation scheme for wireless ad hoc and sensor networks using gossiping to place nodes in an energy saving sleep state. The technique is termed the Gossip-based Sleep Protocol (GSP). With GSP, each node randomly goes to sleep for some time with gossip sleep probability p. GSP is based on the observation that in a well connected network there are usually many paths between a source and destination, so a percentage of nodes can be in an energy conserving sleep mode without losing network connectivity. GSP needs few operations, scales to large networks and does not require a wireless node to maintain the states of other nodes. We propose two versions of GSP, one for synchronous networks and one for asynchronous networks, and afterward extend GSP to adapt to network traffic conditions. We show the advantages of the GSP approach through both simulations and analysis.


gossip sleep mode energy efficiency routing network connectivity 



  1. 1.
    C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, Highly dynamic destination sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers, in Proceeding Of ACM SIGCOMM, October 1994, pp. 234–244.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Murthy and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, An efficient routing protocol for wireless networks, ACM Balzer Mobile Networks and Applications Journal, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Clausen, P. Jacquet, J. Laouiti, P. Minet, P. Muhlethaler, A. Qayyum, and L. Viennot, Optimized link state routing protocol, IETF Internet Draft. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. A. Iwata, C.-C. Chiang, G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T. W. Chen, Scalable routing strategies for ad hoc wireless networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas of Communications, Vol. 17, No. 8, August 1999.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. M. Royer and C.-K. Toh, A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks, IEEE Personal Communications, April 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Johnson, Routing in ad hoc networks of mobile hosts, in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, December 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Johnson and D. Maltz, Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, eds., 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing, in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. D. Park and M. S. Corson, A highly adaptive distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, April 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, A survey on sensor networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. M. Okino and M. G. Corr, Best effort adaptive routing in statistically accurate sensor networks neural networks, in Proceeding Of IJCNN, 2002.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Ye, A. Chen, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, A scalable solution to minimum cost forwarding in large sensor networks, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 2001.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, Directed diffusion: A scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks, in Proceeding Of ACM MOBICOM, 2000.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. R. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, Adaptive protocols for information dissemination protocol for wireless sensor networks, in Proceeding Of ACM MOBICOM, 1999.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks, in IEEE Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agrawal, TEEN: A routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks, in IEEE International Parallel Distributed Processing Symposium, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agrawal, APTEEN: A hybrid protocol for efficient routing and comprehensive information retrieval in wireless sensor networks, in IEEE International Parallel Distributed Processing Symposium, 2002.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris, Span: An energy-efficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks, Wireless Networks, No. 8, pp. 481–494, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Xu, J. Heildemann, and D. Estrin, Geography-informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing, in Proceeding Of ACM SIGMOBILE, 2001.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Schurgers, V. Tsiatsis, S. Ganeriwal, and M. Srivastava, Topology management for sensor networks: Exploiting latency and density, in Proceeding Of ACM MOBIHOC, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Zheng and R. Kravets, On-demand power management for ad hoc networks, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    X. Hou and D. Tipper, Gossip-based sleep protocol (GSP) for energy efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks, in Proceeding of IEEE WCNC, 2004.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Iyengar, K. Kar, and S. Banerjee, Low-coordination topologies for redundancy in sensor networks, in Proceeding Of ACM MOBIHOC, 2005.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. J. Haas, J. Y. Halpern, and L. Li, Gossip-based ad hoc routing, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, 2002.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Meester and R. Roy, Continuum Percolation. Cambridge University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Grimmett, Percolation. Springer-Verlag, 1989.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Wang, S.-H. Cho, C. Sodini, and A. Chandrakasan, Energy efficient modulation and mac for asymmetric RF microsensor systems, in IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, 2001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    V. Raghunathan, C. Schurgers, S. Park, and M. B. Srivastava, Energy-aware wireless microsensor networks, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, March 2002.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Fall and K. Varadhan, The ns Manual., 2002.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. M. Feeney and M. Nilsson, Investigating the energy consumption of a wireless network interface in an ad hoc networking environment, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    X. Hou, Energy Conservation for Wireless Ad Hoc Routing. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 2006.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Grossglauser and D. Tse, Mobility increases the capacity of ad-hoc wireless networks, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. Chu and I. Nikolaidis, Node density and connectivity properties of the random waypoint model, Computer Communications, No. 27, pp. 914–922, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaobing Hou
    • 1
  • David Tipper
    • 1
  • Shuju Wu
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Information Science and TelecommunicationsUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.School of Polytechnic StudiesSoutheast Missouri State UniversityCape GirardeauUSA
  3. 3.Cape GirardeauUSA

Personalised recommendations