Assessing the effect of defect induced stresses on magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signals is a complicated task due to nonlinear magnetomechanical coupling. To facilitate the analysis, a multi-physics finite elemental simulation model is proposed based on magnetomechanical theory. The model works by quasi-statically computing the stress distribution in the specimen, which is then inherited to solve the nonlinear magnetic problem dynamically. The converged solution allows identification and extraction of the MFL signal induced by the defect along the sensor scanning line. Experiments are conducted on an AISI 1045 steel specimen, i.e. a dog-bone shaped rod with a cylindrical square-notch defect. The experiments confirm the validity of the proposed model that predicted a linear dependency of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the normalized MFL signal on applied stress. Besides identifying the effect of stress on the induced MFL signal, the proposed model is also suitable for solving the inverse problem of sizing the defects when stress is involved.
Magnetic flux leakage Magnetomechanics Jiles–Atherton model Non-destructive testing Finite element method Multiphysics numerical simulation
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors thank Mr. Zengchong Yang and Donghang Wu from Beijing University of Technology for helping with the experimental work. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11132002 and 11527801) and China Scholarship Council (CSC).
Hubert, O., Lazreg, S.: Two phase modeling of the influence of plastic strain on the magnetic and magnetostrictive behaviors of ferromagnetic materials. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 424, 421–442 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bastos, J.O.P.A.A.O., Sadowski, N.: Magnetic Materials and 3D Finite Element Modeling. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2014)Google Scholar
Bergqvist, A.J.: A simple vector generalization of the Jiles-Atherton model of hysteresis. IEEE Trans. Magn. 32(5), 4213–4215 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiles, D.C., Atherton, D.L.: Theory of the magnetization process in ferromagnets and its application to the magnetomechanical effect. J. Phys. D 17(6), 1265–1281 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raghunathan, A., et al.: Generalized form of anhysteretic magnetization function for Jiles-Atherton theory of hysteresis. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 172510 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, Z., et al.: Queries on the J-A modeling theory of the magnetization process in ferromagnets and proposed correction method. Proc. CSEE 31(3), 8 (2011)Google Scholar
Mierczak, L.: Evaluation of structural integrity of steel components by non-destructive magnetic methods. PhD thesis, Cardiff University (2015)Google Scholar
Mierczak, L., Jiles, D.C., Fantoni, G.: A new method for evaluation of mechanical stress using the reciprocal amplitude of magnetic Barkhausen noise. IEEE Trans. Magn. 47(2), 459–465 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, Y., Tian, G.Y., Ward, S.: Numerical simulation on magnetic flux leakage evaluation at high speed. NDT&E Int. 39(5), 367–373 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar