Practical Aspects of Nondestructive Induction Field Testing in Determining the Depth of Steel and Reinforced Concrete Foundations

  • Saman RashidyanEmail author
  • Tang-tat Ng
  • Arup Maji


Characterizing unknown bridge foundations has been a great concern for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) in the past decades. Among conventional NDT methods, the Induction Field is a favorable nondestructive method to determine the depth of bridge foundations made of steel or reinforced concrete. Although many studies have been reported on the applicability of the method, the practical aspects of the method including the effect of major factors influencing the success of the method has not been completely discussed. In the current study, the effect of distance, soil type and soil moisture is investigated using two testbeds. The findings were valuable and provided practical guidelines to perform Induction Field tests on steel and reinforced concrete foundations.


Unknown foundations Induction field Nondestructive Steel Reinforced concrete Pile 



This study is partially supported by the New Mexico Department of Transportation. The authors would like to thank Ms. Michelle Mann (New Mexico Department of Transportation) and Dr. Thiet Nguen (Federal Highway Administration) for their valuable suggestions and Ms. April Eckhardt for her assistance during performing the tests.


  1. 1.
    FHWA & FDOT (2010) Unknown foundation bridges pilot study. NCHRP Web-only document 107, FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Briaud, J., Ballouz, M., Nasr, G.: Defect and length predictions by NDT methods for nine bored piles. In: Proceedings of the International Deep Foundations Congress, Orlando, Florida, 14–16 Feb 2002Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lai, J., Yang, S., Chang, T.: Evaluating the height of cantilever earth retaining walls by sonic echo non-destructive testing method. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Res. 10(2), 145–154 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G-I Deep Foundations Committee: Nondestructive evaluation of drilled shafts. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 126(1), 92–95 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ni, S., Lehmann, L., Charng, J., Lo, K.: Low-Strain integrity testing of drilled piles with high slenderness ratio. Comput. Geotech. 33, 283–293 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rashidyan, S., Ng, T., Maji, A.: Estimating the depth of concrete pier wall bridge foundations, using nondestructive sonic echo. J. Nondestr. Eval. (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Olson, L.D., Jalinoos F., Aouad M.F.: Determination of unknown subsurface bridge foundations. A summary of the NCHRP 21-5 Interim Report, September, Washington DC (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis, A.G.: Nondestructive evaluation of existing deep foundations. J. Perform. Constr. Facil 9(1), 57–74 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stein, S., Sedmera, K.: Risk-based management guidelines for scour at bridges with unknown foundations. Final Report for NCHRP Project 24-25, Web-only document 107 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robinson, B., Webster, S.: Successful testing for unknown bridge foundations. Fifth Highway Geophysics—NDE Conference, 101–110 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anderson, N.L., Ismael, A.M., Thitimakorn, T.: Ground penetrating radar: a tool for monitoring bridge scour. Environ. Eng. Geosci. 13(1), 1–10 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations